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Karma

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Nodus sine fine.
Rota precum generis quod in templis Nepalianis adhiberi potest.
Symboli karmae, sicut nodus sine fine (supra), sunt quotidiana culturae signa in Asia. Nodi fine carentes causam et effectum coniunctum repraesentant, circulum karmicum qui in aeternum persistit. Hic nodus in media precum rota videri potest.
Nymphaea karmam in multis traditionibus Asianis symbolice repraesentat. Flos florens est unus ex paucis floribus qui semel semina intra se cum floret fert. Semen causa, flos effectus symbolice videtur. Nymphaea etiam admonitio putatur hominem crescere, karmam bonam partire, etiam temporibus confusis purum manere posse.[1]
Signa in templis Indicis nodos et alias formas coniunctas ad karmam et vincula inter omnes vitas repraesentandas adhibent. Supra videtur signum in se coniunctum in templo Iainistico.

Karma[2] (Sanscritice कर्म; IPA ˈkərmə; Palice kamma), 'actionem', 'opus', vel 'actum' significans,[3] ad spirituale causae et effectus principium pertinet, ubi consilium et acta hominis (quod est causa) futurum illius hominis movent (quod est effectus).[4] Consilium bonum et acta bona karmam bonam et felicitatem futuram, sed consilia mala et acta mala karmam malam et dolorem futurum amplificant.[5][6] Karma in multis scholis religionum Asianarum arte cum notione reincarnationis conectitur.[7] In quibus scholis, praesens hominis karma futurum in vita praesente afficit, cum natura et qualitate futurarum hominis vitarum (saṃsāra).[8] Karma, in India antiqua orta, est sententia maximi momenti in Hinduismo, Buddhismo, Iainismo, Sikhismo,[9] et Taoismo.[10]

Nexus interni

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Macioti pp. 69–70.
  2. Fortasse etiam carma.
  3. Vide:
    • "Karma," Encyclopaedia Britannica, ed. 11a (Novi Eboraci), 15:679–680: "Karma meaning deed or action; in addition, it also has philosophical and technical meaning, denoting a person's deeds as determining his future lot."
    • The Encyclopedia of World Religions, ed. Robert Ellwood et Gregory Alles (ISBN 978-0-8160-6141-9), 253: "Karma: Sanskrit word meaning action and the consequences of action."
    • Hans Torwesten, Vedanta: Heart of Hinduism, ISBN 978-0-8021-3262-8 (Novi Eboraci: Grove Press, 1994), 97: "In the Vedas the word karma (work, deed or action, and its resulting effect)."
  4. "Karma," Encyclopaedia Britannica (2012).
  5. Halbfass 2000.
  6. Becker et Becker 2001:678.
  7. Lochtefeld 2002:351-352.
  8. Bowker 1997.
  9. Parvesh Singla. The Manual of Life – Karma. Parvesh singla. pp. 5ff. 
  10. Wong 2011:193.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Bach, David. 2001. Gib, was du nicht bekommen hast: Karma und Psyche: Eine Einführung. Berolini: Simon + Leutner. ISBN 978-3-922389-91-0.
  • Becker, Lawrence C., et Charlotte B. Becker. 2001. Hindu Ethics. Encyclopedia of Ethics, ed. 2a. ISBN 0-415-93672-1.
  • Bhikkhu Thanissaro. 2010. Wings to Awakening: Part I. Valley Center Californiae: Metta Forest Monastery. PDF.
  • Bowker, John. 1997. Karma. In The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280094-7.
  • Bronkhorst, Johannes. 1998. Did the Buddha Believe in Karma and Rebirth? Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 21(1):1-20. Textus.
  • Buswell, Robert E., ed. 2004. Encyclopedia of Buddhism. Macmillan Reference.
  • Buswell, Robert E., et Donald S. Lopez Jr., eds. 2013. The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton University Press.
  • Chapple, Christopher. 1986. Karma and Creativity. State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-88706-250-4.
  • Dargyay, Lobsang. 1986. Tsong-Kha-Pa's Concept of Karma. Karma and Rebirth: Post Classical Developments, ed. Neufeldt. State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-87395-990-6.
  • Dasgupta, Surendranath. 1991. A History of Indian Philosophy. Vol. 4. Motilal Banarsidass Publ.
  • Gethin, Rupert. 1998. Foundations of Buddhism. Oxoniae: Oxford University Press.
  • Gombrich, Richard F. 1997. How Buddhism Began: The Conditioned Genesis of the Early Teachings. Delli: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers.
  • Gombrich, Richard F. 2009. What the Buddha Thought. Equinox.
  • Halbfass, Wilhelm. 2000. Karma und Wiedergeburt im indischen Denken. Monaci: Diederichs.
  • Harvey, Peter. 1990. Introduction to Buddhism. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press.
  • Humphreys, Christmas. 1951. Karma und Wiedergeburt. Turici: Rascher.
  • Kalupahana, David. 1975. Causality: The Central Philosophy of Buddhism. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
  • Kalupahana, David J. 1992. The Principles of Buddhist Psychology. Delli: Sri Satguru Publications.
  • Keown, Damien. 2000. Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. Kindle edition.
  • Khandro Rinpoche. 2003. This Precious Life. Bostoniae: Shambhala
  • Klostermaier, Klaus K. 1986. Contemporary Conceptions of Karma and Rebirth Among North Indian Vaisnavas. In Karma and Rebirth: Post-classical Developments, ed. Ronald W. Neufeldt. Sri Satguru Publications.
  • Kopf, Gereon. 2001. Beyond Personal Identity: Dōgen, Nishida, and a Phenomenology of No-Self. Psychology Press.
  • Kragh, Ulrich Timme. 2006. Early Buddhist Theories of Action and Result: A Study of Karmaphalasambandha, Candrakirti's Prasannapada, verses 17.1-20. Arbeitskreis für tibetische und buddhistische Studien, Universität Wien. ISBN 3-902501-03-0.
  • Lamotte, Etienne. 1987. Karmasiddhi Prakarana: The Treatise on Action by Vasubandhu. Asian Humanities Press.
  • Lichter, David, et Lawrence Epstein. 1983. Irony in Tibetan Notions of the Good Life. Karma: An Anthropological Inquiry, ed. Charles F. Keyes et E. Valentien Daniel. University of California Press.
  • Lochtefeld, James. 2002. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Novi Eboraci: Rosen Publishing. ISBN 0-8239-2287-1.
  • Macioti, Maria I. The Buddha within Ourselves: Blossoms of the Lotus Sutra, conv. Richard Maurice Capozzi. ISBN 978-0-7618-2189-2.
  • Matthews, Bruce. 1986. Post-Classical Developments in the Concepts of Karma and Rebirth: Theravada Buddhism. In Karma and Rebirth: Post Classical Developments, ed. Ronald W. Neufeldt. State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-87395-990-6.
  • Padmakara Translation Group. 1994 Translators' Introduction. The Words of My Perfect teacher. HarperCollins Publishers India.
  • Schmithausen, Lambert. 1986. Critical Response. In Karma and rebirth: Post-classical developments, ed. Ronald W. Neufeldt. State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-87395-990-6.
  • Vetter, Tilmann. 1988. The Ideas and Meditative Practices of Early Buddhism. Brill.
  • Wong, Eva. 2011. Taoism: An Essential Guide. Bostoniae: Shambhala Publications. ISBN 978-1-59030-882-0).

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]