Lingua Santali

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Lingua Santali
संताली
Taxinomia:
Locutores: 6 170 900[1] (anno fere 1997)
Sigla: 1 —, 2 sat, 3 sat
Status publicus
Officialis India
Privata Bangladesia, Bhutan, Nepalia
Litterae: Litterae Santali
Scriptura: Devanagari, Bengalica, Orissensis, Latina, Ol Chiki
Procuratio:
Familiae linguisticae coloribus Vicipaedicis pictae
Familiae linguisticae coloribus Vicipaedicis pictae
Situs linguarum Munda
Situs linguarum Munda

Lingua Santali (Saṁtālī) ad divisionem Munda familiae Austroasiaticae pertinet. In India adhibetur; est una inter 22 linguas Indiae schedulo enumeratas.

De historia linguae[recensere | fontem recensere]

Huius linguae locutores a principio planitiem Chota Nagpur incolabant. Qui linguis Munda aliis utuntur praecipue montani sunt; Santali autem linguae locutores permulti terras inferiores planitiesque incolunt Indiae orientalis. Suadentibus Britannis in regionem Santhal Parganas adveniebant ut pigmentum indicum cultivarent (quae regio a locutoribus ipsis nomen nacta est: Santhal Parganas sc. provinciae populi Santal). Sunt etiam qui ad Assam et in colles circumiacentes migraverunt theamque ibi colebant. De historia populi linguaeque ante saeculum XIX fere nihil scitur,[2] sed eo tempore principibus Orissenses obtemperabant, ab imperatoribus Mogol ignoti. Sed mox saeculo XIX medio, populo iam fere omni Britannis tributario, missionarii Christiani eo venerunt (primusque Lars Olsen Skrefsrud anno 1864), qui ecclesias scholasque instituerunt et in lingua maternali docebant; leges traditionales populi Santal conscripserunt; Biblia in lingua Santali verterunt; verba ad lexicum parandum denotabant quod postea Paulus Olavus Bodding edidit.[3]

Ante adventum Christianorum nemo ad linguam Santali scribendam operam dedit; scriptura traditionalis huius linguae nulla reperitur. Missionarii abecedarium Latinum adhibebant; alii qui scribere voluerunt scripturis Orissensi aut Bengalica utebantur,[2] sed saeculo XX ineunte Raghunath Murmu e gente Santali ortus, omni linguae culturali scripturam propriam decere censens, abecedarium Santali omnino novum invenit cui nomen Ol Cemet′ dedit; illeque ipse carmen epicum Santali, scriptura sua utens, confecit.[4]

Locutores lingua Santali hodie pagos Bhagalpur et Munger civitatis Bihar habitant; civitatis Jharkhand pagos Manbhum, Hazaribagh (quibus nomen Santhal Parganas recte attribuitur); civitatis Orissa pagum Balasore; civitatis Bengaliae Occidentalis pagos Birbhum et Bankura. Pauciores in civitatibus Assam, Mizoram et Tripura reperiuntur necnon in Bangladesia, Bhutan et Nepalia. Dialecti recognoscuntur Karmali seu Khole, Kamari-Santali, Lohari-Santali, Manjhi, Paharia et in finibus Bangladesiae dialectus Mahali seu Mahle.[1]

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Ethnologue
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Santali" in Andrew Dalby, Dictionary of Languages (ed. recensa: Londinii: Bloomsbury, 2004. ISBN 0747576831) p. 541
  3. Marine Carrin, Harald Tambs-Lyche, "The Santals, though unable to plan for tomorrow, should be converted by Santals" in R. E. Frykenberg, A. M. Low, edd., Christians and Missionaries in India (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2003. ISBN 978-0-8028-3956-5) pp. 274-294 (Paginae selectae apud Google Books)
  4. N. H. Zide in Current Trends in Linguistics vol. 5 (Hagae: Mouton, 1969) pp. 425-426.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

De indole et historia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Gregory D. S. Anderson, "Santali" in Jane Garry et al., edd., Facts About the World's Languages: an encyclopedia of the world's major languages, past and present (Novi Eboraci: H. W. Wilson, 2001. ISBN 978-0-8242-0970-4) pp. 623-628
  • Byomkes Chakrabarti, A comparative study of Santali and Bengali. Colcatae: K. P. Bagchi, 1992. ISBN 81-7074-128-9
  • Arun Ghosh, "Santali" in Gregory D. S. Anderson, ed., The Munda Languages (Londinii: Routledge, 2008) pp. 11-98
  • P. C. Hembram, Santhali, a natural language. Novi Dilli: U. Hembram, 2002
  • B. P. Mahapatra, Santali Language Movement in the Context of Many Dominant Languages. Mysore, 1979 (CIIL Conferences and Seminar Series, 5)
  • Parimala Candra Mitra, Santhali, the base of world languages. Colcatae: Firma KLM, 1988
  • Gurucharan Murmu, Amal Kumar Das, Bibliography: Santali literature. Colcatae: Biswajnan, 1998. ISBN 81-7525-080-1
  • Ganesh Murmu, "Development of Santali Language, Literature and its Recognition: language/script movement" in N. H. Itagi, Shailendra Kumar Singh, edd., Linguistic Landscaping in India, with particular reference to the new states: proceedings of a seminar (Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages, Mahatma Gandhi International Hindi University, 2002. Central Institute of Indian Languages, 495) pp. 241-255
  • Lukas Neukom, Santali. Monaci: Lincom, 2001 (Languages of the World/Materials, 323)
  • J. Newberry, North Munda dialects: Mundari, Santali, Bhumia. Victoria, B.C.: J. Newberry, 2000. ISBN 0-921599-68-4
  • Jeremiah Phillips, An Introduction to the Santali language. Colcatae 1852
  • J. Troisi, The Santals: a classified and annotated bibliography. Novi Dilli: Manohar, 1976

Grammatica[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Gregory D. S. Anderson, The Munda Verb: typological perspectives. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2007. ISBN 978-3-11-018965-0 (Paginae selectae apud Google Books)
  • Gregory D. S. Anderson, Norman H. Zide, "Recent Advances in the Reconstruction of the Proto-Munda Verb" in Laurel J. Brinton, ed., Historical Linguistics 1999: selected papers from the 14th International Conference on Historical Linguistics, Vancouver, 9-13 August 1999 (Amsterdam: Benjamins, 2001. ISBN 978-90-272-3722-4) pp. 13-30 (Paginae selectae apud Google Books)
  • Paul O. Bodding, Materials for a Santali Grammar, I (mostly phonetic) et II (mostly morphological). Dumka: Santal Mission of the Northern Churches, 1922-1929
  • Arun Kumar Ghosh, "Tagmemic Analysis of Some Aspects of the Santali Transitive Verb" in J. C. Sharma, ed., From Sound to Discourse: a tagmemic approach to Indian languages (Manasagangotri, Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages, 1992)
  • Arun Ghosh, Santali: a look into Santal morphology. New Delhi: Gyan, 1994. ISBN 81-212-0451-8
  • Ernst Heuman, Gramatisk studie öfver Santal-språket. Hauniae, 1892
  • "A Skeleton Santali Grammar" in W. W. Hunter, The Annals of Rural Bengal (Londinii: Smith, Elder, 1868) pp. 455-462
  • Lukas Neukom, "Argument Marking in Santali" in Mon-Khmer Studies vol. 30 (2000) pp. 95-113 Textus: imprime On-Line Archives, Neukom
  • Lukas Neukom, "Nomen/Verb-Distinktion im Santali" in Bernhard Wälchli, Fernando Zúniga, edd., Sprachbeschreibung und Typologie: Publikation zum Workshop vom 16. Dezember 2000 in Bern (Bern: Institut für Sprachwissenschaft, 2001)
  • T. Sebeok, "Phonemic Analysis of Santali" in Journal of the American Oriental Society vol. 63 (1943) pp. 66-7
  • Dmitri V. Sitchinava, "Past Markers in Santali: a typology-oriented approach" in Colin P. Masica, ed., Old and New Perspectives on South Asian Languages: grammar and semantics: papers growing out of the Fifth International Conference on South Asian Linguistics (ICOSAL-5), held at Moscow, Russia in July 2003 (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 2007. MLBD Series in Linguistics, 16) pp. 304-322
  • Norman Herbert Zide, "Final Stops in Korku and Santali" in Indian Linguistics vol. 19 (1958) pp. 44-48
  • Norman Herbert Zide, "A Munda Demonstrative System: Santali" in J. M. C. Thomas & L. Bernot, edd., Langues et techniques, nature et société I: approche linguistique (1972) pp. 267-74

Lexicographica[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • P. O. Bodding, A Santali dictionary. 5 voll. Asloae: Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters i kommisjon J. Dybwad, 1929-1936 Versio interretialis imperfecta (Santali, Anglice)
  • Alexander Campbell, A Santali-English Dictionary. 3 partes. Pokhuria: Santal Mission Press, 1899-1902. Ed. 3a a R. M. Macphail edita: Campbell's Santali-English Dictionary. Benegaria: Santal Mission Press, 1954 (Santali, Anglice)
  • Alexander Campbell, English-Santali Index to Santali-English Dictionary. Pokhuria: Santal Mission Press, 1905. Ed. 3a a R. M. Macphail edita: Campbell's English-Santali Dictionary. Benegaria: Santal Mission Press, 1954 (Santali, Anglice)
  • P. C. Kisku, K. R. Soren, संताली शब्दकोश. Deoghar: Santal Paharia Seva Mandal, 1951 (Santali, Hindi)
  • L. Majhi, Santal: byakarasa, racanakali, sabdakosa. Bhubaneshwar: Adibasi Bhasha o Samskriti Ekademi, 1990 (Santali, Orissense)
  • Makoto Minegishi, Ganesh Murmu, Santali basic lexicon with grammatical notes. Tocione: Institute for the Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, 2001. (Asian and African Lexicon Series, 38) ISBN 4-87297-791-2 (Santali, Anglice)
  • स॰ प्रसाद [S. Prasad], संताली-हिदीं शब्दकोश. Ranchi, 1988 (Santali, Hindi)
  • E. L. Puxley, Vocabulary of the Santali Language. London: W. M. Watts, 1868 (Santali, Anglice)
  • डोमन साहु "समीर" [Doman Sahu "Samir"], हिदीं-संताली शब्दकोश. Devaghar, 1993 (Santali, Hindi)

Didactica[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Paul O. Bodding, A Santali Grammar for Beginners. Benagaria: Santal Mission of the Northern Churches, 1929
  • Frederick T. Cole, Santali Primer. Pokhuria: Santal Mission Press, 1906
  • S. Hembram, Bengali-Medium Santali Self-Taught a M.K. Soren recensum. Mecheda, Midnapore: Marang Buru Press, 1985
  • Madhusudan Mishra, A Santali Grammar. Delhi: Shipra Publications, 2006
  • R. M. Macphail, An introduction to Santali: introduction & vocabulary. Joint Santali Literature Board, 1947. 2a ed.: 1953. 5a ed.: 1987
  • R. Murmu, Ranar: A Santali Grammar in Santali. Baripada, 1976 [litteris Ol Chiki conscripta]
  • Jeremiah Phillips, A Santali Primer. Calcutta: School Book Society, 1845, 1852
  • L.O. Skrefsrud, A Grammar of the Santhal Language. Benares: Medical Hall Press, 1873