Antibioticum

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Structura moleculae penicillini, primi medicamenti naturale contra bacteria, ab Alexandro Fleming anno 1928 inventi.

Antibacteriale est compositum vel substantia quae bacteria interficit vel augeri prohibet.[1] Terminus saepe pro synonymo termini antibiotici adhibetur; hodie autem, antibioticum latiorem compositorum antimicrobialium varietatem significare coepit, inter quam antifungalia et alia composita.[2]

Paulus Ehrlich, inventor primi antibiotici ad curandam syphilem.[3]

Nomen antibioticum (a verbis Graecis ἀντί 'contra' + βίος 'vita'), a Selmano Waksman anno 1942 excogitatum est, ad describendam quamlibet rem a microorganismo factam quae auctui quorundam aliorum microorganismorum in alta dilutione contraria est.[5] Haec definitio res excludit quae bacteria interficiunt, sed a microorganismis (sicut acidum gastricum et peroxidum hydrogenii) non generantur; ea synthetica composita antibacterialia sicut sulfonamida etiam excludit. Multa composita antibacterialia sunt moleculae parvae, quibus est pondus moleculare minus quam 2000 unitatum massae atomicae.

Ob progressum in chemia medicinali, plurima antibacterialia hodierna chemice sunt semisyntheticae variorum compositorum naturalium mutationes.[6] Inter ea, exempli gratia, sunt antibacterialia beta-lactamina, quae penicillina (a fungi generis Penicillii generata), cephalosporina, et carbapenemes comprehendunt. Composita quae iam ex organismis vivis deducuntur sunt aminoglycosida, sed alia antibacterialia—inter quae sulfonamida, quinolona, oxazolidinona—solum a synthesi chemica generantur. Ex hoc, multa composita antibacterialia digeruntur secundum originem chemicam vel biosyntheticam in naturales, semisyntheticos, et syntheticos greges. Aliud systema classificationis in activitate? biologica constituitur. Hac in classificatione, antibacterialia in duo greges latos secundum eorum effectum biologicum in microorganismos dividuntur: agentes bactericidales bacteria interficiunt, et agentes bacteriostatici auctum bacteriorum retardant vel stabilant.

Historia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Ante saeculum vicensimum, sanationes infectionum praecipue in medicina populari conditae sunt. Mixturae proprietates antimicrobiales habentes quae in curationibus infectionum adhibebantur abhinc annorum plus quam 2000 describebantur.[7] Multae culturae antiquae, inter quas culturae Aegyptorum antiquorum et Graecorum antiquorum, fungos materiasque et extracta? plantarum prae ceteris selecta ad curandas infectiones adhibebant.[8][9] Recentiores antibiosis inter microorganismos observationes in laboratorio factae in inventionem antibacterialium naturalium a microorganismis generatorum adduxerunt. Apud Ludovicum Pasteur legimus: "Si in observato inter nonnulla bacteria antagonismo? intercedere possimus, haec ratio maximas sanationis spes fortasse praebet."[10][11]

Indicia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Vide etiam[recensere | fontem recensere]

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

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  3. F. Bosch et L. Rosich, "The contributions of Paul Ehrlich to pharmacology: a tribute on the occasion of the centenary of his Nobel Prize," Pharmacology 82 (2008): 171–179.
  4. R. Sykes, "Penicillin: from discovery to product," Bulletin of the World Health Organization 79 (2001): 778–779.
  5. S. A. Waksman, "What Is an Antibiotic or an Antibiotic Substance?" Mycologia 39 (1947): 565–569.
  6. F. von Nussbaum, et al. (2006). "Medicinal Chemistry of Antibacterial Natural Products – Exodus or Revival?". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45 (31): 5072–5129 .
  7. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Considerations_for_Determining_if_a_Natural_Product_Is_an_Effective_Wound-Healing_Agent
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  10. "If we could intervene in the antagonism observed between some bacteria, it would offer perhaps the greatest hopes for therapeutics."
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  12. R. S. Rogers, J. R. Seehafer, et H. O. Perry (Februarius 1982). "Treatment of cicatricial (benign mucous membrane) pemphigoid with dapsone". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 6 (2): 215–223 .
  13. W. Wilson, K. A. Taubert, M. Gewitz, et al. (October 2007). "Prevention of infective endocarditis: guidelines from the American Heart Association". Circulation 116 (15): 1736–54 .
  14. Y. Zadik, M. Findler, S. Livne, et al. (December 2008). "Dentists' knowledge and implementation of the 2007 American Heart Association guidelines for prevention of infective endocarditis". Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 106 (6): e16-9 .

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Abedon, S. T., et R. L. Calendar. 2005. The Bacteriophages.
  • Abedon, S. T., ed. 2008. Bacteriophage Ecology: Population Growth, Evolution and Impact of Bacterial Viruses. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-85845-8.
  • Alexy, Radka, et Klaus Kümmerer. 2005. Antibiotika in der Umwelt. KA: Korrespondenz Abwasser, Abfall 52(5):563–571. ISSN 1616-430X.
  • Bosch, F., et L. Rosich. 2008. The contributions of Paul Ehrlich to pharmacology: a tribute on the occasion of the centenary of his Nobel Prize. Pharmacology 82(3):171–179. PMID 18679046. DOI 10.1159/000149583.
  • Calderon, C. B., et B. P. Sabundayo. 2007. Antimicrobial Classifications: Drugs for Bugs. In Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Protocols, ed. R. Schwalbe, L. Steele-Moore, et A. C. Goodwin. CRC Press, Taylor & Frances group. ISBN 978-0-8247-4100-6.
  • Grote, M., C. Schwake-Anduschus, H. Stevens, R. Michel, T. Betsche, et M. Freitag. 2006. Antibiotika-Aufnahme von Nutzpflanzen aus Gülle-gedüngten Böden: Ergebnisse eines Modellversuchs. Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit 1(1):1661-5867, ISSN 1661-5751.
  • Heisig, Peter. 2004. Was ist neu an Ketoliden und Oxazolidinonen? Wirkungs- und Resistenzmechanismen. Pharmazie in unserer Zeit 33(1):10–19. ISSN 0048-3664.
  • Simon, Claus, et Wolfgang Stille. 1985. Antibiotika-Therapie in Klinik und Praxis. Stuttgartiae: Schattauer. ISBN 3-7945-1970-1.
  • Stille, Wolfgang, Hans-Reinhard Brodt, Andreas H. Groll, et Gudrun Just-Nübling. 2006. Antibiotika-Therapie. Ed. 11a.Stuttgartiae: Schattauer. ISBN 3-7945-2160-9.
  • Sykes, R. 2001. Penicillin: from discovery to product. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 79(8):778–779. PMID 11545336. PMC 2566502.
  • Theuretzbacher, Ursula. (1999) 2005. Mikrobiologie im klinischen Alltag: Erreger, Diagnostik, Therapie. Ed. 2a. Stuttgartiae: Kohlhammeruflage. ISBN 3-17-016665-4.
  • Townsend, Courtney M. 2005. Sabiston Tratado de Cirugia e-dition: Libro con acceso a sitio web Ed. 17a. Elsevier España. ISBN 848174848X. http://books.google.es/books?id=lGOEc7OUm3cC.
  • Waksman, S. A. 1947. What Is an Antibiotic or an Antibiotic Substance? Mycologia 39(5):565–569. DOI 10.2307/3755196. PMID 20264541. JSTOR 3755196.


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