Agricultura biodynamica

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Agricultura biodynamica est ratio agriculturae organicae primum a Rudolpho Steiner excogitata, rebus utens quas proponentes holisticum rationum rusticarum intellectum appellant[1][2] Unus ex primis motibus agriculturae quae sustineri potest,[3][4][5] fertilitatem soli, auctum plantarum, et tutelam pecoris ut opera per oecologiam coniuncta tractat,[6][7][8] conspectus spirituales et mysticos vehementius dicens. Proponentes agriculturae biodynamicae, inter quos Steiner, eam appellaverunt scientiam incorpoream, partem maioris motus anthroposophiae.[9][10]

Biodynamica multum communiter cum aliis doctrinis organicis habet: usum stercorum et compositorum exprimit, usumque substantiarum chemicarum artificiosorum in solo et plantis vetat. Inter rationes in doctrina biodynamica unicas sunt tractatio animalium, plantarum, et soli ut systema unum; fides productioni loci et systematibus distributionis; usus translaticorum et evolutio novorum generum et varietatum loci; et usus calendarii astrologici pro satione et plantatione. Agricultura biodynamica variis additamentis herbaceis et mineralibus pro addiectionibus compositi et asperginibus agrorum utitur; quae aliquando per rationes controversas parantur, sicut inhumatio quarzi contusi in cornu bovis farti, ratio quae "vires cosmicas in solo" legere dictur, tam magiae sympatheticae quam agronomiae similius.

Anno 2011, artes biodynamicae ad 142 482 hectariorum in 47 civitatibus adhibebantur. Germania 45 centesimas summae per orbem terrarum tenebat;[11] reliquum 1750 hectariorum per civitatem peraequabat. Nonnullae vineae notabiles biodynamicas vitium cultorum rationes sibi sumpserunt.[12] Sunt agenturae testificationis pro operibus biodynamicis, quarum plurimae sunt sodales Demetris Internationalis, gregis internationalis normarum biodynamicarum.

Nulla differentia in eventibus commodis ratione probata est inter affirmatas agriculturae biodynamicae artes et agriculturam organicam (similem) et usum agriculturae integratae. Reprehensores agriculturam biodynamicam scientiam falsam aestimaverunt ob inopiam indiciorum validorum eius efficacitatis et scepticismum rerum tantum cogitatio magica reprehensarum.[13][14][15][16]

Vide etiam[recensere | fontem recensere]

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Anglice: "a holistic understanding of agricultural processes."
  2. OrgAg2:145.
  3. Paull, John (2011) "Biodynamic Agriculture: The Journey from Koberwitz to the World, 1924–1938", Journal of Organic Systems, 2011, 6(1):27–41.
  4. D. W. Lotter, 2003."Organic agriculture" in Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 21(4).
  5. Richard Harwood, olim C. S. Mott Chair for Sustainable Agriculture in Universitate Civica Michiganiae, motum biodynamicum appellat "first organized and well-defined movement of growers and philosophies [in sustainable agriculture] (Harwood 1990:6).
  6. OrgAg.
  7. Ikerd, John (2010). "Sustainability, Rural". In Leslie A. Duram. Encyclopedia of Organic, Sustainable, and Local Food. ABC-CLIO. pp. 347–349. ISBN 0313359636 .
  8. Abbott, L. K.; Murphy, Daniel V. (2007). Soil Biological Fertility: A Key to Sustainable Land Use in Agriculture. Springer. p. 233. ISBN 140206618X .
  9. OrgAg2.
  10. Paull, John (2011) "Biodynamic Agriculture: The Journey from Koberwitz to the World, 1924–1938", Journal of Organic Systems, 2011, 6(1):27–41.
  11. John Paull, "Organics Olympiad 2011: Global Indices of Leadership in Organic Agriculture," Journal of Social and Development Sciences, 1(4):144–150 (Maio 2011).
  12. Reeve et al. 2005.
  13. Jamie Goode, The Science of Wine: From Vine to Glass (University of California Press, 2006, ISBN 9780520248007).
  14. Linda Chalker-Scott (2004), "The Myth of Biodynamic Agriculture," Master Gardener Magazine.
  15. D. Smith (2006), "On Fertile Ground? Objections to Biodynamics," The World of Fine Wine, 12:108–113.
  16. Holger Kirchmann (1994), "Biological dynamic farming--an occult form of alternative agriculture?" Journal of Agricural Environmental Ethics 7(2):173–187; doi:10.1007/BF02349036.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Biodynamic Agricultural Association (n.d.). "How does the Calendar work?". Biodynamic Frequently Asked Questions. The Biodynamic Agricultural Association (UK) 
  • Burkitt, L. L., D. R. Small, J. W. McDonald, W. J. Wales, et M. L. Jenkin. 2007. Comparing irrigated biodynamic and conventionally managed dairy farms. 1. Soil and pasture properties. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 47(5): 479–488. doi:10.1071/EA05196. OCLC 12490171.
  • Burkitt, L. L., W. J. Wales, J. W. McDonald, D. R. Small, et M. L. Jenkin, 2007. Comparing irrigated biodynamic and conventionally managed dairy farms. 2. Milk production and composition and animal health. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 47(5) 489–494. doi:10.1071/EA06085. OCLC 12490171.
  • Harwood, Richard R. 1990. A History of Sustainable Agriculture. In Sustainable Agricultural Systems, ed. Clive A. Edwards, Rattan Lal, Patrick Madden, Robert H. Miller, et Gar House, 3–19. Ankeny Iovae: Soil and Water Conservation Society. ISBN 093573421X. OCLC 20933949.
  • Kirchmann, Holger. 1994. Biological dynamic farming: An occult form of alternative agriculture? Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 7(2): 173–187. doi:10.1007/BF02349036. OCLC 41569500.
  • Koepf, Herbert (2009). Research in Biodynamic Agriculture: Methods and Results. Biodynamic Farm and Gardening Association. ISBN 0938250345 
  • Herbert Koepf and Bodo von Plato "Die biologisch-dynamische Wirtschaftsweise im 20.Jahrhundert", Dornach, 2001
  • Kristiansen, Paul (2006). "Overview of organic agriculture". In Paul Kristiansen, Acram Taji and John Reganold (eds.) (PDF). Organic Agriculture: A Global Perspective (online sample reprint ed.). Collingwood, VIC: CSIRO Publishing. pp. 1–23. ISBN 9780643090903 

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]