Tapa

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Homines corticem ex arboribus Nomukae capiunt.
Mulier Tongana lineamenta kupesi vehementius describit.

Tapa est textile corticale in insulis Pacificis factum, praecipue in Polynesia Occidentali (Samoa, Tonga, Vitiis), sed etiam in Havaiis, Nova Zelandia, Vanuatu, Papua Nova Guinea (praecipue in Oro Provincia circa Tufi), atque in insula Iava. In Polynesia Francica, ea paene evanuit, aliquibus vicis in Insulis Marchionis exceptis.

Nomen tapa toto in orbi terrarum noscitur, et comprehenditur per insulas quae hoc textile utuntur, sed id nonnullis nominibus loci appellatur. Vocabulum tapa ex Tahitis et Insulis Cook exoritur, ubi Iacobus Cook et sui fuerunt primi Europaei qui nomen remque sustulerunt et in Europam invexerunt. In Tonga, tapa ngatu, in Samoa, siapo appellatur. Eam Havaiani kapa (cognatum nominis Tahitiani) appellant. In Rotuma, insula Polynesia inter gregem Vitiorum sita, appellatur ‘uha, quamquam in plurimis insulis Vitianis appellatur masi.

Tapa pingi potest. Exemplaria tapae Tonganae, Samoanae, Vitianae usitate rectangula monstrant, quorum quisque exemplaria geometrica figuris iteratis habet, sicut pisces et plantae, exempli gratia quattuor folia quae crucem diagonalem formant. Homines tapam coloribus nigro et fusco ferrugineo tingunt, sed alii colores noscuntur.

Anno 1896, Fridericus Ratzel in The History of Mankind[1] sic descripsit tapam fabricatam:

Cortex circularis super radicem arboris [Broussonetiae papyriferae] conchá fit; arbor defringitur, et paucos dies post, cauli semi-siccato, cortex et bast? (Anglice) ex eo separantur. Bast tum purgatur, inque aqua maceratur; postea super stipem ligneum clavá costis praeditá? percutitur. Haec percussio vicum Tonganum excitat sicut tritura in Europa. Margines conchis secantur, et permultae partes super semicylindricalem? et ligneam imaginem impressam separatim tractantur, in qua exemplar, fibris cocotium perfectis, extenditur et liquore simul tenace et colorante inlinitur.

Vide etiam[recensere | fontem recensere]

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Friedrich Ratzel, The History of Mankind (Londinii: MacMillan, 1896), www.inquirewithin.biz/history/american_pacific/oceania/oceania-labour.htm#cloth.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Aldridge, Richard, et Michael Hamson. 2009. Art of the Massim & Collingwood Bay. Palos Verdes Californiae: Michael Hamson.
  • Arbeit, Wendy. 1995. Tapa in Tonga. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
  • Arkinstall, Patricia Lorraine. 1966. A study of bark cloth from Hawaii, Samoa, Tonga and Fiji: An exploration of the regional development of distinctive styles of bark cloth and its relationship to other cultural factors. Ithacae Novi Eboraci.
  • Brigham, William Tufts. 1911. Ka hana kapa, making of bark-cloth in Hawaii. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press.
  • Goldman, Irving. 1979. The Cubeo: Indians of the Northwest Amazon. University of Illinois Press.
  • Helu, I. F. 1999. Critical essays: Cultural perspectives from the Southseas.
  • Kaeppler, Adrienne Lois. 1975. The fabrics of Hawaii (bark cloth). Leigh-on-Sea: F. Lewis.
  • Kooijman, Simon. 1963. Ornamented bark-cloth in Indonesia. Mededelingen van het Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde, Leiden, 16. Leiden: E. J. Brill.
  • Leonard, Anne, et John Terrell. 1980. Patterns of Paradise: The styles and significance of bark cloth around the world. Sicagi: Field Museum of Natural History.
  • Meurant, Georges, et Robert Farris Thompson. 1996. Mbuti Design: Paintings by Pygmy Women of the Ituri Forest. Londinii: Thames & Hudson.
  • Meyer, Anthony J. P. 1992. Les Tapa funéraires des Nakanai de Nouvelle-Bretagne. Océanie-Oceania, 11. Lutetiae: Galerie Meyer.
  • Neich, Roger, et Mick Pendergrast. 1997. Pacific Tapa. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press.
  • Pule, John, et N. Thomas. 2005. "Hiapo: past and present in Niuean Barkcloth." Dunedin: University of Otago Press.
  • Richards, Rhys. 2005. Not Quite Extinct: Melanesian Barkcloth ('Tapa') from Western Solomon Islands. Paremata Press.
  • Winter, Joan G. 2009. Talking Tapa: Pasifika Bark Cloth in Queensland. Southport: Keeaira Press.
  • Wright, Margot. 2001. Barkcloth: Aspects of Preparation, Use, Deterioration, Conservation and Display (Conservators of Ethnographic Artefacts). Archetype Books.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]


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