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Optimismus

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Murus Berolinensis (conspectus occidens). Occidens muri latus graphita fert quae spem et optimismum exhibent.

Optimismus (ab optimo) est habitus mentis, qui fidem vel spem exhibet aliquem conatum certum, vel exitum ad summum, positivum, prosperum, desiderabilem esse. Vox linguae propria quae saepe adhibetur ad exhibendum optimismum contra pessimismum est calix vitrues aqua plena usque ad dimidium: optimistae dicitur videri calix vitreus semiplenus, cum pessimistae semivacuus videatur.

Subrisulus[1] est symbolus optimismi.

Status optimisticus sensu usitato definitur in omnibus circumiectis exspectatio optimi exitús qui fieri potest. Qui habitus mentis plerumque in psychologia optimismus dispositionalis appellatur, fidem exhibens circumiecta futura optime fiunt. Quam ob rem, videtur proprietas quae alacritatem contra tensionem fovet.[2]

Optimista et pessimista. Pictura Vladimiri Makovsky, 1893.

Inter theorias optimismi sunt exemplaria dispositionalia et exemplaria modi explicatorii. Modi quae optimismum metiuntur intra ambo systemata theoretica excogitati sunt, sicut varia genera Experimenti Orientationis Vitae (ad optimismum primae significationis indagandum) et Quaestionarium Modi Attributionalis (ad optimismum modi explicatorii indagandam).

Variatio in optimismo et pessimismo aliquantulum est heritabilis,[3] ac systemata proprietatum biologicarum paulo exhibet.[4] Etiam rebus circumiectorum respondere potest, inter quas circumiecta familiaria,[3] et nonnulli eruditi dicunt optimismum disci posse.[5] Optimismus etiam cum valetudine humaná coniungi potest.[6]

Optimalismus[recensere | fontem recensere]

Optimalismus philosophicus, a Nicolao Rescher definitus, dicit nostrum universum exsistere quia melius est quam altera universa quae fieri possunt.[7] Haec philosophia, cum deitatem omnipotentem non excludat, talem deitatem nihilominus non poscit, ergo cum atheismo congruens.[8] Rescher dicit hanc notionem sui potens esse, quia optimalismus divinitus institutus non est necessarius, quia ipsa optimalismi principia theoriam naturalisticam constituunt.[9]

Nexus interni

Personalitas optimistica (tabula ex Bates 2015 accommodata).

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Anglice smiley.
  2. Weiten et Lloyd 2005: 96.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Bates 2015.
  4. Sharot 2011.
  5. Vaughan 2000.
  6. Ron Gutman, "The hidden power of smiling" (pellicula YouTube).
  7. Rescher 2000.
  8. Steinhart 2000.
  9. Rescher 2013: 80.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Affleck, Glenn, Howard Tennen, et Andrea Apter. 2001. "Optimism, Pessimism, and Daily Life With Chronic Illness." Optimism & Pessimism: Implications for Theory, Research, and Practice, ed. E. Chang, 147–168. Vasingtoniae: American Psychological Association. ISBN 9781557986917.
  • Bates, Timothy C. 2015. "The glass is half full and half empty: A population-representative twin study testing if optimism and pessimism are distinct systems." The Journal of Positive Psychology 10, no. 6 (25 Februarii): 533–42. doi:10.1080/17439760.2015.1015155. PMID 26561494. PMC 4637169.
  • Bergland, Christopher. "Optimism Stabilizes Cortisol Levels and Lowers Stress." Psychology Today: Health, Help, Happiness + Find a Therapist. Editio interretialis.
  • Chang, E. 2001. Optimism & Pessimism: Implications for Theory, Research, and Practice. Vasingtoniae: American Psychological Association. ISBN 1-55798-691-6.
  • Goleman, Daniel. 1995. Inteligencia Emocional. Argentina: Kairos. ISBN 84-7245-371-5.
  • Huesemann, Michael H., et Joyce A. Huesemann. 2011. "Technological Optimism and Belief in Progress." Capitulum 7 in Technofix: Why Technology Won't Save Us or the Environment. Insula Gabriola Columbiae Britannicae Canadae: New Society Publi/ ISBN 0865717044.
  • Leal, S., et J. Urrea. 2013. Ingenio y Pasión Ed. Lid. ISBN 978-84-835-6818-7.
  • McGinnis, Alan Loy. 1990. The power of optimism. Franciscopoli: Harper & Row. ISBN 0060653620.
  • Rescher, Nicholas. 2000. "Optimalism and axiological metaphysics." The Review of Metaphysics 53, no. 4 (Iunius): 807–35. ISSN 0034-6632.
  • Rescher, Nicholas. 2013. Issues in the Philosophy of Religion. Piscataway Novae Caesareae: Transaction Books. ISBN 9783938793701.
  • Rockwell, Sylvia. 2006. You Can't Make Me!: From Chaos to Cooperation in the Elementary Classroom. Thousand Oaks Californiae: Corwin Press. ISBN 978-1412916615.
  • Scheier, Michael F., et Charles S. Carver. 1992. "Effects of optimism on psychological and physical well-being: Theoretical overview and empirical update." Cognitive Therapy and Research 16, no. 2 (Aprilis): 201–28. doi:10.1007/BF01173489.
  • Scheier, Michael F., Charles S. Carver, et Michael W. Bridges. 2001. "Optimism, Pessimism, and Psychological Well-Being. In Optimism & Pessimism: Implications for Theory, Research, and Practice, ed. E. Chang, 189–216. Vasingtoniae: American Psychological Association. ISBN 978-1-55798-691-7.
  • Seligman, M. E. P. 2006. Learned Optimism: How to Change Your Mind and Your Life. Vintage. ISBN 1400078393.
  • Sharot, Tali. 2012. The Optimism Bias: A Tour of the Irrationally Positive Brain. Vintage. ISBN 9780307473516.
  • Sharot, Tali. 2011. "The optimism bias." Current Biology 21, no. 23 (December): R941–R945. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2011.10.030 |pmid=22153158.
  • Steinhart, Eric. "Platonic Atheism." PDF. Editio in tabulis relatum, 10 Iulii 2011.
  • Vaughan, Susan C. 2000. Half Empty, Half Full: Understanding the Psychological Roots of Optimism. Novi Eboraci: Courtyard.
  • Weiten, Wayne, et Margaret Lloys. 2005. Psychology Applied to Modern Life: Adjustment in the 21st Century. Belmont Californiae: Thomson Wadsworth. ISBN 978-0534608590. Editio interretialis.
  • Mayo Clinic Staff. "Positive thinking: Stop negative self-talk to reduce stress" Mayoclinic.org. Mayo Clinic, 4 March 2014. Web. 31 March 2014.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Wikiquote-logo.svg Vicicitatio habet citationes quae ad optimismum spectant.
Commons-logo.svg Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad optimismum spectant.