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Spes

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Hope, in ima capsa iacens, mansit. Pictura allegorica Georgii Friderici Watts, 1886.
Das Prinzip Hoffnung. Auschwitz, rosa spem exprimit.

Spes est status qui desiderium exituum positivorum promovet qui ad eventus et condiciones in vita sui vel ad summam pertinent, ut in locutione "Spero [spem habeo] te in inferis putrefacturum esse."[1] Desperatio saepe contrarium spei habetur.[2]

Spes est "sententia quod desideratum haberi posse vel eventus praevalere," sive actus "anticipa[ndi] rem cum appetitione et fide modica," sive "sentire desideratum fieri posse."[3][4] Inter alias definitiones sunt "colere desiderium per anticipationem" et "desiderare in exspectatione adipiscendi" et "exspectare confidenter."[5][6]

Ductus[recensere | fontem recensere]

Napoleo Bonaparte dicitur dixisse ducem esse mercatorem spei.[7] Robertus Mattox, agitator socialis et futurista, doctrinam mutationis socialis in re conditam proponit (Mattox 2012). Sunt investigationes magni momenti facilitatis ductus in efficiendas mutationes, sed paucae investigationes condiciones ductus necessarias ad initiandam et feliciter ducendam mutationem explorant.

Nonnullae ductus theoriae ponunt hominem qui res iustas facit ducem efficacem fore. Laurentius Stout certas postulans condiciones exsistere debere antequam duces ingeniosissimi mutationem efficere possent, vehementius dicit quattuor condiciones necessarias:

  1. homines (qui)
  2. locus (ubi)
  3. positio (quod)
  4. tempus (quando)

Dux, si omnes has condiciones habet, mutationes ducere poterit (Stout 2006).

Historia spei[recensere | fontem recensere]

Alfredus Adler dixit: "Non possumus cogitare, sentire, velle, vel agere sine fine percepto."[8]

Spes in mythologia Graeca antiqua in fabula Iovis et Promethei apparet. Prometheus ignem a deo Iove furatus est, cum deus supremus exasperatus capsam vicissim omnia mali genera continentem fecit. Pandora, monitu neglecto, capsam aperuit, illa mala in mundum liberans; spes autem, in ima capsa iacens, mansit.[9]

Nexus interni

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Anglice: "I hope you rot in hell" (Jay 1992:75).
  2. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, ed. 4a.
  3. Anglice: "feeling that what is wanted can be had or that events will turn out for the best" vel "look[ing] forward to something with desire and reasonable confidence" vel "feel[ing] that something desired may happen."
  4. Hope, dictionary.com (27 Novembris 1992).
  5. Anglice: "to cherish a desire with anticipation"; "to desire with expectation of obtainment"; "to expect with confidence."
  6. Hope, merriam-webster.com.
  7. Anglice: "A leader is a dealer in hope."
  8. Anglice: "We cannot think, feel, will, or act without the perception of a goal" (Snyder 1994:3).
  9. Magaletta et Oliver 1999.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Averill, James R. 1990. Rules of hope. Springer-Verlag.
  • Jay, Timothy. 1992. Cursing in America: A Psycholinguistic Study of Dirty Language in the Courts, in the Movies, in the Schoolyards, and on the Streets. John Benjamins Publishing. ISBN 978-90-272-2092-9.
  • Magaletta, Philip R., et J. M. Oliver. 1999. The Hope Construct, Will, and Ways: Their Relations with Self-Efficacy, Optimism, and General Well-Being. Journal of Clinical Psychology 55:539–551. PDF.
  • Mattox, Robert. 2012. Dealers in Hope: How to Lead Change and Shape Culture. Lulu Press.
  • Miceli, Maria, et Cristiano Castelfranchi. 2010. Hope: The Power of Wish and Possibility. Theory Psychology 20(2):251–276.
  • Kierkegaard, Søren A. 1995. The Sickness Unto Death. Princetoniae: Princeton University Press.
  • Snyder, Charles D. 1994. The Psychology of Hope: You Can Get There from Here. Simon and Schuster.
  • Snyder, Charles D. 2000. Handbook of Hope: Theory, Measures, and Applications. Academic Press.
  • Stout, Larry. 2006. Ideal Leadership: Time for a Change. Destiny Image.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

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