Platonismus

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Situs Academiae Athenis inventae.
Multi ecclesiastici Occidentales, inter quos Augustinus, a Platonismo moti sunt.

Platonismus (P maiusculo) est philosophia Platonis vel nomen cuiuslibet alius formulae philosophicae ex ea arte deductae; et (p minusculo) philosophia quae adfirmat exsistentiam res abstractae, quae habentur exsistere in "regno tertio," a mundo exteriore sensuali mundoque interno conscientiae distinctam, et est nominalismo (n minusculo) opposita.[1]

Sensu strictiore, nomen significare potest doctrinam realismum Platonicum. Fundamentalis Platonismi sententia est distinctio realitatis quae percipi sed non intellegi et realitatis quae intellegi sed non percipi potest; haec distinctio est necessaria ad intellegendam doctrinam idearum. Formae usitate in dialogis sicut Phaedo, Symposium, et Respublica praestantes describuntur, archetypi perfecti, quorum res in mundo quotidiano tentae exemplaria vitiosa sunt. In Republica, forma altissima agnoscitur forma boni, fons omnium formarum aliarum, qui per rationem agnosci potest. In Sophista, opere posteriore, formae entitatis, similitudinis, et differentiae inter "genera magna" primordialia perscribuntur. Arcesilas autem saeculo insequente scepticismum ascivit, qui primum scholae dogma usque ad 90 a.C.n. factus est, cum Antiochus elementa Stoica adderet, scepticismum reicens tempusque Medii Platonismi incipiens. Saeculo tertio p.C.n., Plotinus elementa mystica addidit, Neoplatonismum instituens, in quo summa vita fuit Unus vel Bonum, fons rerum omnium, atque anima in virtute et meditatione se potuit elevare ut se cum Uno coniungeret. Altos effectus in cogitatione Occidentali habuit Platonismus, Platonicaeque notiones multae ab ecclesia Christiana sumptae sunt, quae formas Platonicas pro cogitationibus Dei habuit, cum Neoplatonismus apud mysticismum Christianum multum in Occidente per Augustinum, Doctorem Ecclesiae, valeret, cuius scripta Christiana ab Enneadibus Plotini magnopere mota sunt,[2] et vicissim fundamenta fuerunt omnis cogitationis Christianitatis Occidentalis.[3]

Philosophia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Prima notio est doctrina idearum, in qua solum ens verum in formis conditur, in typis aeternis, immutabilibus, perfectis, quorum res separate a sensibus perceptae exemplaria vitiosa sunt.

Nexus interni

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. "Philosophers who affirm the existence of abstract objects are sometimes called platonists; those who deny their existence are sometimes called nominalists. This terminology is lamentable, since these words have established senses in the history of philosophy, where they denote positions that have little to do with the modern notion of an abstract object. However, the contemporary senses of these terms are now established, and so the reader should be aware of them. . . . In this connection, it is essential to bear in mind that modern platonists (with a small 'p') need not accept any of the doctrines of Plato, just as modern nominalists need not accept the doctrines of the medieval Nominalists" (Rosen 2012).
  2. R. J. O'Connell, "The Enneads and St Augustine's Vision of Happiness," Vigiliae Christianae 17 (1963):129–164.
  3. Jaroslav Pelikan, The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, vol 1, The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition 100-600; vol. 3, The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, vol. 3, The Growth of Mediaeval Theology 600–1300, sectio "The Augustinian Synthesis."

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Ackermann, C. 1861. The Christian Element in Plato and the Platonic Philosophy. Conversus ab Asbury Samuel Ralph. Edinburgi: T. & T. Clark.
  • Cassirer, Ernst. 1953. The Platonic Renaissance in England. Conversus a James P. Pettegrove. Edinburgi: Nelson.
  • Kristeller, Paul Oskar. 1961. Renaissance Platonism. In Renaissance Thought: The Classic, Scholastic, and Humanistic Strains. Novi Eboraci: Harper.
  • Rosen, Gideon. 2012. Abstract Objects. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward N. Zalta.
  • Walker, Daniel Pickering. 1972. The Ancient Theology: Studies in Christian Platonism from the Fifteenth to the Eighteenth Century. Londinii: Duckworth.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]