Iainismus

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Statua Gomateshwarae culturae Digambarensis in Shravanabelagola Karnatakae est sui generis altissimum mundi monolithum.

Iainismus[1] sive Gennismus[2] est antiqua Indiae religio, quae viam praescribit non violentam erga omnes res quae vivunt. Sua philosophia et facinora vehementius dicunt postulationem ut homines animam ad sensum divinum et liberationem promovere conentur. Quaevis anima quae suos inimicos interiores vicit et statum entitatis? supremae adsecuta est jina 'victor' appellatur, nam Iainismus est via ad hoc statum adsequendum.

Iainismus a scripturis antiquis Shraman Dharma 'dharma fidem sibi habens' vel religio Nirganthae (cui non sunt studia et odia) appellatur. Praeterea, Iainismus plerumque Iain Dharma (जैन धर्म) in lingua Hinduistica et Samanam in Tamil appellatur.

Iainismus, quem adsectatores semper exsistisse credunt,[3][4][5] ab historicis inter saecula nonum et sextum a.C.n. ortum fuisse habetur.[6][7][8][9][10] Iainismus est ad vitam revocatus a stirpe viginti quattuor asceticorum (hominum doctorum qui cibo et aliis rebus quotidianis abstinuerunt) appellatorum tirthankararum (Buswell 2004:391), quorum praecipui nobis certi sciti fuerunt Parsva saeculo nono a.C.n. et Mahavira saeculo sexto a.C.n.: "Est argumentum mores Iainos fuisse iam veterrimos quam mores Buddhisticos, fortasse retro ad tempus civilizationis Vallis Indae, et Vardhamanam—non "conditorem" per se—fuisse potius tantum principalem morum magnopere vetustiorum vicarium."[11][12][13][14][15] Nonnulli quaesiverunt num religio prioribus temporibus orta sit, quae "spiritualitatem" vernacularem ante migrationem Indo-Aryanam in Indiam ostendit.[16][17][18]

Iainismus hodie est parva sed gravissima "minoritas" religiosa, quae ad 4 200 000 adsectatorum in India habet,[19] cum communitatibus advenarum in America Septentrionali, Europa Occidentali, Asia Orientali, Australia, et alibi.

Vide etiam[recensere | fontem recensere]

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

Mulnayak Shri Adinath Bhagwan, Bibrod Tirth.
  1. Warning icon.svg Fons nominis Latini desideratus (addito fonte, hanc formulam remove)
  2. Hesychius γ364: "Γεννοί· οἱ Γυμνοσοφισταί." Cf. et Disputatio:Infinitas#Jaina.
  3. "Jainas consider that religion is eternal and imperishable. It is without beginning and it will never cease to exist. The darkness of error enveloping the truth in certain, periodically occurring aeons clears up again and again so that the brightness of the Jaina-faith can sparkle again anew" (Glasenapp et Shrotri 1999:15).
  4. "Jainism is believed by its followers to be everlasting, without beginning or end" (Dundas 2002:12).
  5. "The Historians have so far fully recognized the truth that Tirthankara Mahavira was not the founder of the religion. He was preceded by many tirthankaras. He merely reiterated and rejuvenated that religion. It is correct that history has not been able to trace the origin of the Jaina religion; but historical evidence now available and the result of dispassionate researches in literature have established that Jainism is undoubtably an ancient religion" (Varni 1993:xii–xiii).
  6. "Thus not only nothing, from the philosophical and the historical point of view, comes in the way of the supposition that Jainism was established by Parsva around 800 BC, but it is rather confirmed in everything that we know of the spiritual life of that period" (Glasenapp et Shrotri 1999:24).
  7. "Jainism, then, was in origin merely one component of a north Indian ascetic culture which flourished in the Ganges basin from around the eighth or seventh centuries BCE" (Dundas 2002:17).
  8. "It (Jainism) arose in the sixth century B.C.E. in protest against the ritualism of Hinduism and the authority of the Vedas" (Edwards 2001).
  9. "Jainism arose in the 6th century BC as a reaction against the caste restraints and rituals of Hinduism" (Singh 2005:62).
  10. "Jainism is a religion that was established about the same time as Buddhism and developed parallel to it" (Nakamura 1990:266).
  11. Gerald James Larson, India’s Agony over Religion (SUNY Press, 1995, ISBN 0-7914-2412-X), p. 27.
  12. "The Historians have so far fully recognized the truth that Tirthankara Mahavira was not the founder of the religion. He was preceded by many tirthankaras. He merely reiterated and rejuvenated that religion. It is correct that history has not been able to trace the origin of the Jaina religion; but historical evidence now available and the result of dispassionate researches in literature have established that Jainism is undoubtly an ancient religion" (Varni 1993:xii–xiii).
  13. "One significant difference between Mahavira and Buddha is that Mahavira was not a founder of a new movement, but rather a reformer of the teachings of his predecessor, Parsva" (Craig 1998:33).
  14. "Originating on the Indian sub-continent, Jainism is one of the oldest religion of its homeland and indeed the world, having pre-historic origins before 3000 BCE and the propagation of Indo-Aryan culture" (Beversluis 2000:81).
  15. Guseva p. 44.
  16. Gerald James Larson, India’s Agony over Religion (1995, SUNY Press, ISBN 0-7914-2412-X) ait: "There is some evidence that Jain traditions may be even older than the Buddhist traditions, possibly going back to the time of the Indus valley civilization, and that Vardhamana rather than being a “founder” per se was, rather, simply a primary spokesman for much older tradition" (p. 27).
  17. Joel Diederik Beversluis in Sourcebook of the World's Religions: An Interfaith Guide to Religion and Spirituality (Novato, Calif.: New World Library, 2000, ISBN 1-57731-121-3) ait: "Originating on the Indian sub-continent, Jainism is one of the oldest religion of its homeland and indeed the world, having pre-historic origins before 3000 BC and the propagation of Indo-Aryan culture" (p. 81).
  18. Guseva, p. 44.
  19. Indian Census.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Alsdorf, Ludwig. 2006. Jaina Studies: Their Present State and Future Tasks. Eng. tr. Bal Patil. Edited by Willem Bollée. Pandit Nathuram Premi Research Series Volume 1. Mumbai: Hindi Granth Karyalay.
  • Amiel, Pierre. 2008a. B.A.-BA du Jaïnisme. Editions Pardès, Grez sur Loing.
  • Amiel, Pierre. 2008b. Les Jaïns aujourd'hui dans le monde. Lutetiae: Ed. L'Harmattan, 2003, Conversus in English and printed under the title "Jains today in the world" by Parshwanath Vidyapeeth, Varanasi.
  • Balbir, Nalini, ed. 2006. Catalogue of the Jain Manuscripts of the British Library. 3 vol. London: Institute of Jainology.
  • Beversluis, Joel Diederik. 2000. Sourcebook of the World's Religions: An Interfaith Guide to Religion and Spirituality. Novato Californiae: New World Library. ISBN 1-57731-121-3.
  • Bollée, Willem. 2005. The Story of Paesi Pandit Nathuram Premi Research Series Volume 2. Mumbai: Hindi Granth Karyalay.
  • Bollée, Willem. 2006. Vyavahara Bhasya Pithika. Prakrit text with English translation, annotations and exhaustive Index by Willem Bollée. Pandit Nathuram Premi Research Series Volume 4. Mumbai: Hindi Granth Karyalay.
  • Buswell, Robert E. 2004. Encyclopedia of Buddhism.
  • Caillat, Colette. 1981. La cosmologie jaïna. Lutetiae: Ed. du Chêne.
  • Chand, Bool. 1998. Mahavira-Le Grand héros des Jaïns. Lutetiae: Maisonneuve et Larose.
  • Craig, Edward. 1998. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Novi Eboraci et Londini: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-415-07310-3.
  • Dundas, Paul. 2002. The Jains.
  • Edwards, Linda. 2001. A Brief Guide to Beliefs: Ideas, Theologies, Mysteries and Movements.
  • Glasenapp, Helmuth von, et Shridhar B. Shrotri. 1999. Jainism: An Indian Religion of Salvation.
  • Guseva, Mrs. N. R. Jainism.
  • Hynson, Colin. 1998. Discover Jainism. Ed. Mehool Sanghrajka. Londinii: Institute of Jainology.
  • Jain, DuliChand. 1998. English version of "Baghawan Mahavir ki Vani"—Thus Spake Lord Mahavir. Chennai: Sri Ramakrishna Math.
  • Jain, Duli Chandra, ed. 2004. Studies in Jainism. 3 vol. New York: Jain Stucy Circle.
  • Jalaj, Jaykumar. 2007. The Basic Thought of Bhagavan Mahavir. Ed. Elinor Velázquez. (5th edition) Jaipur: Prakrit Bharati Academy.
  • Joindu. 2007. Paramatmaprakasha. Apabhramsha text with Hindi tr. by Jaykumar Jalaj. Ed. Manish Modi. Pandit Nathuram Premi Research Series Volume 9. Mumbai: Hindi Granth Karyalay.
  • Joindu. 2008. Yogasara. Apabhramsha text with Hindi tr. by Jaykumar Jalaj. Ed. Satyanarayana Hegde. Pandit Nathuram Premi Research Series Volume 10. Mumbai: Hindi Granth Karyalay.
  • Kapashi, Vinod. 2007. Nava Smarana: Nine Sacred Recitations of Jainism. Ed. Signe Kirde. Mumbai: Hindi Granth Karyalay.
  • Kundakunda. 2006. Atthapahuda Prakrit text with Hindi tr. by Jaykumar Jalaj. Ed. Manish Modi. Pandit Nathuram Premi Research Series Volume 6. Mumbai: Hindi Granth Karyalay.
  • Mardia, K. V. 2007. The Scientific Foundations of Jainism. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0659-X. = Jain Dharma ki Vigyanik Adharshila. Varanasi: Parsvanath Vidhyapitha. 2004. ISBN 81-86715-71-1.
  • Mehta, T. U. 1993. Path of Arhat—A Religious Democracy, Volume 63, Faridabad: Pujya Sohanalala Smaraka Parsvanatha Sodhapitha.
  • Nakamura, Hajime. 1990. A history of early Vedānta philosophy. Vol. 1, p. 266.
  • Patil, Bal. 2006. Jaya Gommatesha. Praefatio a Colette Caillat scripta. Mumbai: Hindi Granth Karyalay.
  • Prabhacandra. 2008. Tattvarthasutra. Textus Sanscritus cum textu Hindi converso a Jaykumar Jalaj. Preface by Nalini Balbir. Ed. Manish Modi. Pandit Nathuram Premi Research Series Volume 7. Mumbai: Hindi Granth Karyalay.
  • Pujyapada. 2006. Samadhitantra. Textus Sanscritus cum textu Hindi converso a Jaykumar Jalaj. Pandit Nathuram Premi Research Series Volume 5. Mumbai: Hindi Granth Karyalay.
  • Pujyapada. 2007. Istopadesha. Textus Sanscritus cum textu Hindi converso a Jaykumar Jalaj. Ed. Manish Modi. Pandit Nathuram Premi Research Series Volume 14. Mumbai: Hindi Granth Karyalay.
  • Rankin, Aidan. 2006. 'The Jain Path: Ancient Wisdom for the West.' Winchester et Vasingtoniae DC: O Books.
  • Reymond, Jean-Pierre. 1991. L'Inde des Jaïns. Ed. Atlas.
  • Roy, Ashim Kumar. 1984. A history of the Jains. Novi Delii: Gitanjali Publishing House.
  • Samantabhadra. 2006. Ratnakaranda Sravakacara. Sanskrit text with Hindi tr. by Jaykumar Jalaj. Preface by Paul Dundas. Pandit Nathuram Premi Research Series Volume 3. Mumbai: Hindi Granth Karyalay.
  • Sangave Vilas. 1999. Le Jaïnisme—Philosophie et Religion de l'Inde. Lutetiae: Editions Trédaniel.
  • Singh, Sarina. 2005.
  • Todarmal. 1992. Moksamarga Prakashaka. Jaipur: Todarmal Smarak Trust.
  • Varni, Jinendra. 1993. 'Samaṇ Suttaṁ. Edidit Professor Sagarmal Jain; convertit Justice T. K. Tukol et Dr. K. K. Dixit. New Delhi: Bhagwan Mahavir memorial Samiti.
  • Vijayashri. 2005. Sachitra Pacchis Bol. Agra: Mahasati Kaushalya Devi Prakashan Trust.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

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