Substantia P

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Substantia P

Substantia P (etiam abbreviatura SP) est peptidum undecim aminoacidorum, ita hendecapeptidum. Attribuitur substantia P familiae tachykininorum, quo substantia P inter cetera tachykinina abundissimum in corpore apparet. Ut cetera tachykinina substantia P quoque effectus suos receptoriis tachykinini exercet, imprimis receptorio tachykini 1 (NK1).

Invenitur substantia P neurotransmissor in partibus systematum nervosorum et centralis et peripherici, quibus liberatur SP de nervorum sensoriorum terminalibus. Munus eius est neurotransmissor in apparatu digestorio[1] et nervo vago. SP effectus sunt salivationis incrementum, musculorum levium contractio.

Putatur, ut alia munera sint secundum inflammationem et vulnerum curationem[2].

Partes effectuum substantiae P ope obsidionis receptorii NK1 inhiberi potest (antagonista receptorii NK1, per exemplum antiemeticum Aprepitantum).

De substantiae P natura[recensere | fontem recensere]

Molecula[recensere | fontem recensere]

Substantia P est hendecapeptidum, quod est catena ex undecim aminoacidis composita:

H-Arg1-Pro-Lys-Pro-Gln-Gln-Phe-Phe-Gly-Leu-Met11-NH2

Synthesis[recensere | fontem recensere]

SP de geno TAC1 praeprotachykinini 1 (TAC1), denique ab molecula praecurrente derivatur: Praecursori huic aliud aminoacidum Glycinum inest (SP-Gly, SP-G), quod post translationem dissecatur. Dissectioni enzymaticae, peptidylglycini alpha amida dantis monooxygenasis (PAM) ope[3], vitaminum C et cuprum (Cu++) necesse est[4].

Praeprotachykininum (TAC1)[recensere | fontem recensere]

Praeprotachykini genum in hominibus in chromosomate 7 locato (7q21-22) locatum est.

Physiologia[recensere | fontem recensere]

In corpore substantia P neurotransmissor agit.

Distributio substantiae P in corpore[recensere | fontem recensere]

Invenitur substantia P neurotransmissor afferentium fibrarum nervalium nonnullis in partibus systematum nervosorum et centralis et peripherici[5].

In systemate nervoso centrali[recensere | fontem recensere]

Synapses substantiam P continentes in utroque medullae spinalis cornu dorsali abunde (20% omnium cellularum eorum cornuum) demonstratae sunt. Adveniunt in cornus laminis zonis extremis (laminis I et II) nervorum sensoriorum axones[6], processus quorum in epidermi atque vasorum glandularumque parietibus oriuntur.

Ut in medulla spinali fibrae nervales substantiam P continentes in substantiam gelatinosam nuclei spinalis nervi trigemini proficiscuntur[7].

Praeterea demonstrata est substantia P in cerebri utraque substantia nigra (nucleis basalibus) et utroque corpore amygdaloideo (parte mediali).

In sytemate nervoso peripherico[recensere | fontem recensere]

Multipliciter reperiuntur substantia P in fibris nervosis sensoriis tenuioribus et in systemate nervoso enterico.

Effectus physiologici[recensere | fontem recensere]

Effectus sunt excitantes[8] cum tardioribus et ascensu et descensu.

Historia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Substantia P primum anno 1931 ab Ulf von Euler et Ioanne Gaddum descripta est[9].

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Hökfelt T., Pernow B., Wahren J. (Ian 2001). "Substance P: a pioneer amongst neuropeptides". Journal of internal medicine 249 (1): 27-40 
  2. Suvas S. (Sep 2017). "Role of Substance P Neuropeptide in Inflammation, Wound Healing, and Tissue Homeostasis". Journal of immunology 199 (5): 1543-52 
  3. Jeng A. Y., Fujimoto R. A., et al. (Iun 1997). "Suppression of substance P biosynthesis in sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglion by prodrug esters of potent peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase inhibitors". The journal of biological chemistry 272 (23): 14666-71 
  4. Wong M., Jeng A. Y. (Ian 1994). "Posttranslational modification of glycine-extended substance P by an alpha-amidating enzyme in cultured sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia". Journal of neuroscience research 37 (1): 97-102 
  5. Ribeiro-da-Silva A., Hökfelt T. (Oct 2000). "Neuroanatomical localisation of Substance P in the CNS and sensory neurons". Neuropeptides 34 (5): 256-71 
  6. Charnay Y., Paulin C., et al. (Sep 1983). "Distribution of substance P-like immunoreactivity in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia of the human foetus and infant". Neuroscience 10 (1): 41-55 
  7. Priestley J.V., Somogyi P., Cuello A. C. (Oct 1982). "Immunocytochemical localization of substance P in the spinal trigeminal nucleus of the rat: a light and electron microscopic study". The journal of comparative neurology 211 (1): 31-49 
  8. Otsuka M., Konishi S., et al. (1976). "Substance P and primary afferent transmission". Advances in biomedical psychopharmacology 15: 187-91 
  9. Euler U. S. V., Gaddum J.H. (Iun 1931). "An unidentified depressor substance in certain tissue extracts". The journal of physiology 72 (1): 74-87 

Nexus interni

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Britannica.com de Substantia P (Anglice)
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