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Electrophorus electricus

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Electric-eel.jpg
Elecyrophorus electricus in Aquario Novae Angliae in Civitatibus Foederatis

Classis : Actinopterygii 
Ordo : Gymnotiformes 
Familia : Gymnotidae 
Genus : Electrophorus 
T. N. Gill, 1864
Species : E. electricus 
Electrophorus electricus 
(Linnaeus, 1766)  
Conservationis status

Electrophorus electricus (aliis speciebus propositis[2]), in variis linguis anguilla electrica vulgo appellatus, est piscis electricus ordinis Gymnotiformium, qui piscis in America Australi invenitur. Usque ad annum 2019, classificabatur sola sui generis species.[2]

Anatomia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Electrophoro electrico est corpus praelongum et cylindricum, quod plerumque ad 2 metra longum crescit, 20 chiliogrammatibus ponderis, ut maxima ordinis species sit.[3] Colores sunt fuscus obscurus in tergo et flavus vel aurantius in ventre. Colores feminarum maturarum in abdomine obscuriores sunt. Eis non sunt squamata. Os est rectangularis, prope finem rostri situm. Pinna analis secundum corpus totum ad apicem caudae extenditur.

Ut in aliis ostariophysorum piscibus, vesica natandi in duo conclavia finditur: conclave anterius cum auri interiori serie parvorum ossium ex vertebris colli evolutorum (apparatus Weberianus appellata) conectitur, facultatem audiendi amplificans; conclave posterius secundum totum corpus extenditur, et levitati piscis moderatur.

Tres propositae generis Electrophori species comparatae.
Electrophorus electricus in Aquario Novae Angliae.
Electrophorus electricus.
Electrophorus electricus.

Systema respiratorium est vascularizatum, ubi commutatio gasium per textum epitheliale in lacuna buccali fit.[4] Electrophori electrici, quia aerem spirant, ad superficiem decimo fere quibusque minutis surgere ad spiritum ducendum debent, antequem iterum ad imam aquam redeunt. Ei paene octoginta centesimas eorum oxygenii sic adipiscuntur.[5]

Contra nomen vulgare, Electrophorus electricus ad anguilliformes veras non arte conectitur, sed est socius Gymnotiformium neotropicorum, qui ad siluriformes artius conectitur.

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. IUCN (vide situs scientificos).
  2. 2.0 2.1 de Santana, C. David; Crampton, William G. R. et al (2019-09-10). "Unexpected species diversity in electric eels with a description of the strongest living bioelectricity generator". Nature Communications 10 (1): 4000 .
  3. Albert, J. S. (2001). "Species diversity and phylogenetic systematics of American knifefishes (Gymnotiformes, Teleostei)". Misc. Publ. (190): 1–127 .
  4. Boutilier, Robert (1990). Vertebrate Gas Exchange: From Environment to Cell. Advances in Comparative & Environmental Physiology 6. Berolini: Springer-Verlag. p. 285. ISBN 9783642753800 .
  5. Johansen, Kjell (1968). "Gas Exchange and Control of Breathing in the Electric Eel, Electrophorus electricus". Zeitschrift Vergl. Physiol. 61 (volume 61, no. 2 (Iunius) 1968): 137–163 .

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Catania, Kenneth C. 2014. "The Shocking Predatory Strike of the Electric Eel." Science 346, no. 6214 (5 Decembris): 1231–34.
  • Catania, Kenneth C. 2016. "Leaping Eels Electrify Threats, Supporting Humboldt’s Account of a Battle with Horses." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113, no..13 (21 Iunii): 6979-84. Editio interretialis.
  • Catania, Kenneth C. 2017. "Power Transfer to a Human during an Electric Eel's Shocking Leap." Current Biology 27 (18): 2887–91.e2. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2017.08.034. PMID 28918950.
  • Catania, Kenneth C. 2020. "Les superpouvoirs de l'anguille électrique." Pour la science 508 (Februarius): 36-43.
  • Finger S. 2010. "Dr. Alexander Garden, a Linnaean in Colonial America, and the Saga of Five 'Electric Eels.'" Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 53, no. 3 (aestas): 388–406.
  • Finger, S., et M. Piccolino. 2011. The Shocking History of Electric Fishes: From Ancient Epochs to the Birth of Modern Neurophysiology. Novi Eboraci: Oxford University Press.
  • Gervais, R. 2017. "Phenomenological Understanding and Electric Eels." Theoria 32 (3): 293–302. doi:10.1387/theoria.17294. http://www.ehu.eus/ojs/index.php/THEORIA/article/download/17294/15727 Editio interretialis.]
  • Gronovius, L. T. 1763. "Zoophylacii Gronoviani fasciculus primus exhibens animalia quadrupeda, amphibia atque pisces, quae in museo suo adservat, rite examinavit, systematice disposuit, descripsit atque iconibus illustravit." Laur. Zoophylacii Gronoviani 1–136, pls. 1–13.
  • Plumb, G. 2010. "The 'Electric Stroke' and the 'Electric Spark': Anatomists and Eroticism at George Baker's Electric Eel Exhibition in 1776 and 1777." Endeavour 34, no. 3 (September): 87–94.
  • de Santana, C. David, William G. R. Crampton, Casey B. Dillman, Renata G. Frederico, Mark H. Sabaj, Raphaël Covain, Jonathan Ready, Jansen Zuanon, Renildo R. de Oliveira, Raimundo N. Mendes-Júnior, Douglas A. Bastos, Tulio F. Teixeira, Jan Mol, Willian Ohara, Natália Castro e Castro, Luiz A. Peixoto, Cleusa Nagamachi, Leandro Sousa, Luciano F. A. Montag, Frank Ribeiro, Joseph C. Waddell, Nivaldo M. Piorsky, Richard P. Vari, et Wolmar B. Wosiacki. 2019. "Unexpected species diversity in electric eels with a description of the strongest living bioelectricity generator." Nature Communications 10 (4000). doi:10.1038/s41467-019-11690-z.
  • Traeger, L. L., G. Sabat, G. A. Barrett-Wilt, G. B. Wells, et M. R. Sussman. 2017. "A Tail of Two Voltages: Proteomic Comparison of the Three Electric Organs of the Electric Eel." Science Advances 3 (7): e1700523. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1700523. PMID 28695212. PMC 5498108. Bibcode 2017SciA....3E0523T.
  • Turkel, W. J. 2013. Spark from the Deep: How Shocking Experiments with Strongly Electric Fish Powered Scientific Discovery. Baltimorae: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Wikidata-logo.svg Situs scientifici:  • ITIS • NCBI • Biodiversity • Encyclopedia of Life • IUCN Red List • WoRMS: Marine Species • FishBase • INPN France
Commons-logo.svg Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad Electrophorum electricum spectant.
Wikispecies-logo.svg Vide "Electrophorum electricum" apud Vicispecies.
Wiktionary-ico-de.png Vide Electrophorum electricum in Victionario.