Dry martini

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Dry martini e spiritu iuniperato vinoque absinthita, cortice lumiae ornata, in cyatho typico oblata

Martini, saepe plenius dry martini, est potio fortis mixta generis cocktail, saeculo XIX exeunte inventa. Consensu universali martini originem suam in Civitatibus Foederatis habet: philologus ergo Americanus huiusque potionis amator H. L. Mencken haud infeliciter the only American invention as perfect as a sonnet ("solam inventionum Americanarum quae adeo perfecta sit ut sonetum") nuncupavisse refertur.[1] Saeculo XX (quo saeculo cocktail hour[2] apud Americanos non paucos ante cenam celebrabatur) a pluribus scriptoribus, viris politicis, mercatoribus Civitatum Foederatarum martini paene loco potionis nationalis habebatur, ut qui non tantum de eius confectione sed etiam de essentialitate aut levius aut profundius loqui solebant. His non omnino dissentiens, Nicetas Chruščëv princeps Sovieticus, "arma Civitatum Foederatarum letalissima" annis 1960 agnominavit.[3]

De nomine et historia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Gastronomia Novae Aureliae: Vodka martini e vodca vinoque absinthita, tribus olivis ornata, instillatione muriae olivarum tincta, in deversorio Monteleone inlata

Nomen dry martini hoc sensu primum fortasse anno 1903 legitur,[4] vocabulum simplex martini anno 1896,[5] paulo anterius locutio martini cocktail anno 1884 in Modern Bartender's Guide ab O. H. Byron edito,[6] sed eodem anno Martinez cocktail in The Bar-tender's Guide a Jerry Thomas scripto.[7] Si haec appellatio pristina sit (id quod incertum est), nonnulli, fontibus haud fidei dignis, e nomine urbis Martinez Californiae derivare suadeant.[8]

Byron breviter "eadem quae Manhattan nisi quod iuniperatum loco vischii recipis" praecepit. Ita partes aequales iuniperati vinique absinthitae dulcis, instillationes elixirum curaçao et Angostura aequales recipere solebat.[6] Nostro tempore potio martini e spiritu iuniperato multo, vino absinthita sicco pauco conficitur, elixiribus amaris[en] fere semper omissis, glacie sedulius refrigerata, aut oliva aut lumiae cortice ornata.

Inter placita Americanorum leviora retinere oportet mandatum sample the bewildering depths of the "Martini cocktail" ("degustate perplexantes profunditates potionis martini") cuiusdam diarii Neo-Eboracensis anni 1887;[9] Robertique Lowell poëtae illius fere nationalis domum ope potionum martini reditum, We made it on ... martinis;[10] consensumque constrictissimum cui Arthurus Schlesinger se cum Roberto Bork (de quo vide infra) anno 1989 convenisse confessus est, But he is likeable, and we agreed at least on the indispensability of the dry martini ("nihilominus amabilis est, atque ad minimum de natura indispensabili potionis dry martini una mente locuti sumus").[11]

Gastronomia Campensis: Martini seu vodka martini, laguna et cyathus cervesiae Baltika (Petropoli in urbe braxatae), cyathi aquae duo in popina Campis Nivatae inlatae
Martini non iam oblata cum glacie refrigescitur. Impensae monstrantur: spiritus iuniperatus Finsbury, vinum absinthites siccum Francicum Noilly Prat, elixir aurantiacum ... sed de confectoribus praeferendis ad infinitum disputatur

Scriptorum omnium Ernestus Hemingway maxime hanc potionem cupiebat, etiamsi Lutetiae annis 1920 propter paupertatem rarius consumpsisset. Protagonistas mythistoriarum, tamquam pro se agentes, martini libentissime bibentes monstrat. In A Farewell to Arms Fridericum Henry heroem, ab exercitu Italico clam discedentem, Strixiam ad amicam rursus inveniendam petiisse, sed illa non iam reperta statim in deversorio duas martini bibisse, olivas, amygdala sale condita, frusta patatarum comedisse, pastilla sandwich iterumque duas martini postulavisse: I had never tasted anything so cool and clean. They made me feel civilized. I had had too much red wine, bread, cheese, bad coffee and grappa ("Nullam aliam rem adeo nitidam refrigeratoriamque gustaveram. Me cultum sentire fecerunt. Vinum rubrum, panem, caseum, coffeum acerbum, spiritus vini nimis sumpseram").[12]

De rebus politicis[recensere | fontem recensere]

Dry martini, oliva immersa ornata, iuxta impensas suas monstrata, videlicet spiritum iuniperatum Gordon's Britannicum vinumque absinthites siccum Italicum Gallo

Herbertus Hoover praeses ab annos 1930 martini ritualiter bibisse, potionem a sinistra ad rectam incitans, atque iam senem ab eo tempore quo medicus unam tantam praescripsisset, cyathum maiorem postulavisse, secundum biographum Davidem Burner; maxime diligisse horam cocktail, quam "moram" nuncupavisset "inter errores probationesque diei et spes noctis".[13]

Dry martini, olivis quattuor ornata, ad quam, elixire aurantiaco omisso, spiritus iuniperatus Tanqueray Rangpur[en] recipitur

Theodorus Roosevelt praeses, sicut Americani multi, potiones ipse misceri solebat hospesque generosus convivas fere quotidie convocabat, sed, secundum nonnullos, martini pessimas omnium conficiebat.[14] Nonnumquam impensarum quantitatis dum etiam miscebat oblitus est; ipsum e cyatho subbibit, ac, si perite gustu suo miscuisset, "Yummy, nonne bonum!" dixit.[15] Ricardus Nixon praeses, secundum aulicum quendam, si de ulla re, de martini sicut cognoscens iudicabat; de confectore spiritus iuniperati et de mixtura curiosissime inquirebat.[16] Ultima potio, quam nocte demissionis suae sumpsit, martini esse refertur.[17]

Ille Bork, iudex conservativus, quondam advocatus generalis Civitatum Foederatarum, solus fortasse inter politicos saeculi XX de potione a se amata commentationem longiorem conscripsit: quam composuerit eo fere die, conservativis nefasto, quo Gulielmus Clinton (olim discipulus suus apud Yalenses) praeses iterum electus est. Ibi de rebus factionalibus' "una tantum potio" scripsit "correctitudinem conservativam convehit, videlicet dry martini, quam Bernardus DeVoto 'supremum donum ad culturam mundanam ab Americanis datum' nuncupavit,[18] quam autem mundus iste haud appententer accepit: recentius in tabernis Angliae bonam martini non habueris nisi mixturam tumet ipse fecisses. Martini electionibus anno 1994 habitis apud nos restituta est: nos devictionis nostrae anno 1996 oblivisci adiuvet."[19]

De horis[recensere | fontem recensere]

W. C. Fields histrio mane surgens duas martini duplices, Geraldus Ford legatus futurusque praeses martini singulam ante alium cibum sumere solebat; quam potionem caupona "ientaculum victorum" (breakfast of champions) in mythistoria eiusdem tituli Curtii Vonnegut nuncupare fingitur.[20] Duas martini cum prandio sumptas Georgius McGovern candidatus ad praesidatum anno 1972 vituperavit; cui post sex annos respondens Geraldus Ford tres martini medio die bibitas levius defendit.[21]

Rectius autem crebriusque de potionibus martini ante cenam sumptis, eadem hora quae cocktail hour nominatur, scribuntur historici recentiores (ita anecdotice Barbara Holland: "illis diebus operario domum redeunte ad portam a muliere salutato martini optime refrigerata oblata est; cuius ope animus restitutus, nervi nodosi relaxati erunt")[22] antiquioribus non dissentientibus. P. G. Wodehouse enim breviter per heroëm Bertie Wooster "cenam bene temperatam" laudat "praecedentibus dry Martini duabus, dimidiata vini lagena perluente".[23] Ad hanc habitudinem roborandam apud societatem cenatoriam Century Club Neo-Eboracensem potiones martini et Manhattan nostro tempore libenter dantur, aliis potionibus (aqua non excepta) venditatis.[24]

De confectione[recensere | fontem recensere]

Qui de martini praesertim de confectione potionis colloquuntur, sicut in convivio praeceptorum a mythistorico Randall Jarrell fingitur: "Potiones nobis datae sunt. Potavimus. Dum potabamus locuti sumus, sed loqui in euphemismum hic scribitur: dialogum istum de modo confectionis martini egimus ... Americani Inferni incolae de martini commiscendis inter se disputant."[25]

De ornatu iam centum fere annos disputatum est, an cortice limoniorum seu lumiarum, an potius olivis, sed quot olivis (usque ad quattuor, vide imaginem) et qualibus (an capsico dulci farctis?) An modicum muriae, quo olivae conditae erant, addere oportet (vide imaginem)? De baculo, quo olivae infixantur, haud unquam disputatur, tamquam periculosum sit: baculo incaute hausto, diverticulo coli mox transpuncto, scriptor Sherwood Anderson peritonitide mortuus est.[26]

Ille Bork, scriptor de natura et utilitate martini

De siccitate aut dulcitudine disputationem cognoscentium fingitur: sweet martini in libris praeceptorum exstetit,[27] sed scriptis plurimis dry martini et martini eundem sensum habent. Potiones huius generis nihilominus annis 1880 et 1890, fortasse etiam tardius, e vino absinthita dulci confieri solebant; ergo eo aevo omnes martini dulces, sed ab annis 1940 omnes "siccae" vel amarae fiunt.[28] Eodem fere rythmo martini fortiores factae sunt, vino absinthita gradatim deminuta, aqua vitae aucta. Eo aevo M. F. K. Fisher gastronoma quattuor potiones martini definivit, quarum ultimam, e quattuor partes iuniperati ampullulamque absinthitae mixtam, se sibi ipso reservavisse praetendit, omnibus aliis absentibus.[29] Eisdem annis Natalis Coward scriptor scaenicus praecepisse dicitur filling a glass with gin, then waving it in the general direction of Italy ("cyathus iuniperato repletus Italiam versus gesticuletur", Italiam scilicet unde vina absinthita plura proveniunt.[30]

Gastronomia Californiensis: Vesper modo canonico ex iuniperato, vodca, vino cinchonato composita, taenia corticis limonii ornata, apud cauponam oppidi Half Moon Bay oblata

Multi recentius loco iuniperati vodcam recipiunt, ita vodka martini bibentes. Sunt qui post ioannem Fleming vel potius Iacobum Bond "Vesper" sumunt, vodca retenta, vino cinchonato adhibito loco absinthitae. Sed Bork, nomen martini talibus variationibus abnegans, olivis reiectis, de mixtura verae potionis verbis iudicialibus "mixturam iuniperati et absinthitae" scripsit "proportionibus ab 4:1 usque ad 8:1 permittendam," iuniperatos Bombay, Bombay Sapphire, Tanqueray, absinthita Boissière a se praelatis: glacie e cyatho excluderetur sed ipse columniacus cyathus gelaretur adeo ut frigidissimus esset.[31]

De rebus sensualibus[recensere | fontem recensere]

Fisher autem, de sensualitate martini loquens, se concipisse confessa est the real pleasure of a definite alcoholic wallop. There is no less vulgar way of describing what a dry Martini gives me. It is as warming as a hearthfire in December, as stimulating as a good review by my favorite critic ... as exciting as a thorough buss I have yearned for from a man I didn't even suspect suspected me ("libidinem veram colaphi alcoholici distincti; non potest verbis urbanioribus describi id quod dry martini mihi dat. Adeo calefacit quam flammae foci Decembres, adeo excitat quam laudatio a recensore mi cariore edita, adeo accendit quam basia illius admirati quem aestimatum meum percepisse non iam perceperam").[32]

His annis fere 1930 a femina libera satisque potente fassis, Ernestus Hemingway mox in mythistoria Across the River and Into the Trees nolens potestatem tradit, qua vir admiratus, mixturae alcoholicae dominus, in puellam agere possit: Colonellum Cantwell heroëm, Renatam multo iuniorem excipiens, martini fortissimae Montgomery confectionis sibi illaeque afferri iussisse, praebibere cyathorum contactu "si volumus" docuisse: cui illam "volo" respondisse: "gelatissimae potiones veraeque Montgomery erant, quas, marginibus contactis, per superiores corporum partes iucunde ardere sentiebant."[33]

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Alistair Cooke, Six Men (Novi Eboraci: Knopf, 1977) p. 94; #Edmunds (1998) p. xix
  2. Citationes ab anno 1893: The Oxford English Dictionary (Oxonii: Clarendon Press, 1989. 20 voll.)
  3. #Doxat (1976) p. 134, fonte primario citato; #Edmunds (1998) p. xix
  4. It was an actual mystery to him that any one could dally with a Dry Martini while there was a hydrant on every corner: G. Ade, People You Know p. 20
  5. As he sipped his martini and inhaled its seductive bouquet, a far-away look came into his baby-blue eyes: The Crescent [Novi Eboraci] (1 Augusti 1896) p. 11 col. 2
  6. 6.0 6.1 Martinez cocktail: same as Manhattan, only you substitute gin for whisky: #Byron (1884) p. 21
  7. #Thomas (1884)
  8. P. Tamony in Western Folklore vol. 26 (1967) p. 124 ff.
  9. Brooklyn Daily Eagle (30 Iunii 1887) p. 2 col. 2
  10. Robert Lowell, "Homecoming" in Day By Day (Novi Eboraci: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1977) p. 11
  11. Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr, Journals 1952-2000 (Novi Eboraci: Penguin Press, 2008) sub anno 1989
  12. Ernesti Hemingway A Farewell to Arms (1929) cap. 34
  13. From the 1930's onward, he drank martinis ritualistically, "stirring them to the right", insisting on a larger glass late in life when his doctor limited him to one. The cocktail hour was his favourite time, "the pause," he called it, "between the errors and trials of the day and the hopes of the night": David Burner, Herbert Hoover: a public life (Novi Eboraci: Knopf, 1979) pp. 218-219; #Edmunds (1998) p. xxviii
  14. Many people — and this is recorded — say "the president made the worst martinis I’ve ever tasted": Curtis Roosevelt (nepos praesidis) apud History Channel (2005); Brian Abrams, "5 Presidents Who Fought For Their Right To Party" (4 Februarii 2015)
  15. Grace G. Tully, F.D.R., My Boss (Novi Eboraci: Scribner, 1949)
  16. If he is a connoisseur of anything ... it is martinis. He is very particular about the brand of gin -- he prefers Beefeater -- and the way it's mixed: apud David Butwin, "Nixon in Rebozoland" in Saturday Review (8 Martii 1969) p. 109
  17. #Blend (2016) et alibi, fonte non citato
  18. Bernard DeVoto, The Hour (Boston: Riverside, 1951) p. 22; #Edmunds (1998) p. xix
  19. There is only one drink that conveys conservative correctness ... the dry martini ... which Bernard DeVoto called the “supreme American gift to world culture.” Not that the world accepted the gift very eagerly: until recently the only sure way to get a decent martini in England was to go behind the bar and make it yourself ... The martini was brought back by Republicans with the '94 elections; it will help us forget '96.#Bork (1996)
  20. Kurt Vonnegut, Breakfast of Champions (Novi Eboraci: Dell, 1995) pp. 194, 210
  21. There is something fundamentally wrong with the tax system ... when it allows a corporate executive to deduct his $20 martini lunch while a working man cannot deduct the price of his bologna sandwich; The three-martini lunch is the epitome of American efficiency. Where else can you get an earful, a bellyful, and a snootful at the same time? Jerry Della Femina, "The Hey-Day of the Three-Martini Lunch" in New York Times Magazine (28 Octobris 1989) p. 22
  22. In the olden days, the returning breadwinner was greeted by his wife at the door with a perfectly chilled martini ... It restored his soul, loosened his tightly coiled nerves: Barbara Holland, Endangered Pleasures: in defense of naps, bacon, martinis, profanity, and other indulgences (Bostoniae: Little, Brown, 1995) p. 41
  23. "A nicely-balanced meal, preceded by a couple of dry Martinis, washed down with half a bot": P. G. Wodehouse, Very Good, Jeeves (1930) cap. 2 p. 57
  24. #Edmunds (1998) p. 127, fonte fortasse seipso
  25. We were given drinks, and drank them, and talked while we drank them. But talked, here, is a euphemism: we had that conversation about how you make a Martini ... Americans in Hell tell each other how to make Martinis. Randall Jarrell, Pictures from an Institution: a comedy (1954) p. 40
  26. B. H. Kean, M.D.: One Doctor's Adventures among the Famous and Infamous (1990); #Edmunds (1998) p. xi
  27. #Sloppy Joe (1933)
  28. It is generally held that the 1940s was the decade in which the Martini became truly dry: #Edmunds (1998) p. 131
  29. Given the silly fillip of a scant driblet of vermouth, icy-cold gin can make a private and soul-satisfying drink indeed, and one not to be indulged in lightly, too long, or oftener than the stars dictate ... Palliative or poem, it is good: #Fisher, ed. Reardon (1990) p. 735
  30. Citatio saepissime reperta sed fonte primario carente
  31. In the first place, a drink made with vodka is not a martini. A martini means gin. Second, olives are to be eschewed, except by people who think a martini is a type of salad. Finally, the martini must be straight up ... The proportion of gin to vermouth may range from 4:1 to 8:1. The upper end of that range is preferable ... The three best gins, in my view, are Bombay, Bombay Sapphire, and Tanqueray, but it is possible to make a fine martini with lesser gins ... My favorite French vermouth is Boissiere ... The martini should be served in a stemmed glass that has been chilled until it is as cold as possible. #Bork (1996)
  32. #Fisher, ed. Reardon (1990) p. 733
  33. "Waiter," the Colonel called; then asked, "Do you want a dry Martini, too?" "Yes," she said. "I'd love one." "Two very dry Martinis," the Colonel said. "Montgomerys. Fifteen to one ... We just raise the glasses to each other, and, if we wish, we can touch the edges." "I wish," she said. The Martinis were icy cold and true Montgomerys, and, after touching the edges, they felt them glow happily all through their upper bodies. ... "Waiter, ancora due Martini." He did not like to call for Montgomerys in a tone that could be overheard because there were two obvious Britishers at the next table: Ernestus Hemingway, Across the River and Into the Trees (1950) cap. 14

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Historica
Praecepta
  • 1884 : O. H. Byron, The Modern Bartenders’ Guide. Novi Eboraci ("Martinez cocktail")
  • 1887 : Jerry Thomas, The bar-tender's guide, or How to mix all kinds of plain and fancy drinks (Nova ed. Novi Eboraci: Dick & Fitzgerald) p. 25 ("Martinez cocktail")
  • 1895 : George J. Kappeler, Modern American Drinks: How to Mix and Serve All Kinds of Cups and Drinks (Novi Eboraci: Merriam, 1895) p. 38 ("Martini cocktail")
  • 1896 : Louis Fouquet, Bariana: Recueil de toutes boissons americains et anglaises (Lutetiae) p. 25 no. 18 ("martini cocktail")
  • 1930 : Gerardo Corrales, Club de cantiñeros de la República de Cuba: Manual oficial (Havanae, 1930) p. 51 ("Martini cocktail ... fórmula original creación de la case Martini & Rossi")
  • 1933 : Sloppy Joe's Cocktails Manual (Havanae, 1933) p. 18 ("dry martini, sweet martini")
  • post 1937 : [William J. Tarling], Approved Cocktails: United Kingdom Bartenders Guild. Londinii: Pall Mall ("Martini, Dry ... Medium ... Sweet")

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]