Servitudo

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Vide etiam paginam discretivam: servitus

Mercatus servorum. Tabula ab Ioanne Leone Gérôme (1824–1904) circa 1866 picta. Institutum Artium Sterling et Francine Clark, Williamstown, Massachusettae.
Castigatio quam magister Arabus pro peccato levi adfecit. Photogramma servi in Zanzibar, circa 1890 capta.
Forum servorum in Europa Orientali Medio Aevo ineunte. Tabula a Sergio Ivanov picta.
Mercedariani servos Christianos in manibus Mussulmanorum tentos redimunt. Imago ex Stanley Lane-Poole, The Story of the Barbary Corsairs (G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1890).
Itinera praecipua quae ad transporandos servos trans Africam mediaevalem adhibita sunt.
Arabi servorum mercatores et eorum capti secundum Flumen Ruvuma, in Tanzania et Mozambico hodiernis.

Servitudo est systema oeconomicum quo homines bona considerantur ut venumdentur et laborare compellantur.[1] Servi contra eorum voluntatem a tempore eorum captivitatis, emptionis, vel ortus teneri, atque iure discedere, nolle laborare, et poscere compensationem privari possunt. Servitudo per historiam in institutionibus multarum societatibus olim agnita est; recentioribus autem temporibus servitudo in plurimis societatibus interdicitur, sed per mores servitutis in aere alieno, servitudinis per pactum, serfdom, operis domestici captorum custoditorum, certarum adoptionum (quibus pueri laborare ut servi compelluntur), militum puerorum, et matrimonii compulsi persistit.[2]

Servitudo tabulas scriptas antecedit et in multis culturis exsistit. Numerus servorum hodiernorum fortasse est inter 12 milliones[3] et 27 milliones.[4][5] Plurimi sunt servi in aere alieno, plerumque in Asia Meridiana, qui ob dolos faeneratorum in aes alienum inciderunt, aliquando per generationes.[6] Commercium humanum praecipue ad compellendas mulieres puerosque in vitam meretriciam adhibetur.[7]

In oeconomiis societatum ante industriam ortam, servi et eorum labor fuerunt res maximi momenti. Servi et serfs fuerunt circa tres partes omnium hominum saeculo undevicensimo ineunte.[8]

Internationalis iurum humanorum lex omnes servitudines in omni forma prohibet.

Vide etiam[recensere | fontem recensere]

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Laura Brace (2004). The Politics of Property: Labour, Freedom and Belonging. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 162–. ISBN 978-0-7486-1535-3 .
  2. "Religion & Ethics – Modern slavery: Modern forms of slavery". BBC. 30 Ianuarii 2007 
  3. "Forced labour – Themes". Ilo.org .
  4. Bales, Kevin (1999). "1". Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy. University of California Press. p. 9. ISBN 0-520-21797-7 .
  5. "BBC Millions 'forced into slavery'". BBC News. 27 Maii 2002 .
  6. "Slavery in the 21st century". Newint.org .
  7. com/english/news/a-13-2009-05-15-voa30-68815957.html "Experts encourage action against sex trafficking". Voice of America. 2009-05-15 
  8. David P. Forsythe, Encyclopedia of Human Rights, volume 1 (Oxford University Press, 2009), p. 399, ISBN 0195334027.—"At the beginning of the nineteenth century an estimated three-quarters of all people alive were trapped in bondage against their will either in some form of slavery or serfdom."

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Generalia
  • Bales, Kevin. 1999. Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy.
  • Campbell, Gwyn, Suzanne Miers, et Joseph C. Miller, eds. 2007. Women and Slavery. Vol. 1: Africa, the Indian Ocean World, and the Medieval Atlantic; Women and Slavery. Vol. 2: The Modern Atlantic.
  • Davis, David Brion. 1999. The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution, 1770-1823.
  • Davis, David Brion. 1988. The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture.
  • Doganis, Rigas, Gad Heuman, et James Walvin, eds. 2003. The Slavery Reader. Routledge.
  • Drescher, Seymour. 2009. Abolition: A History of Slavery and Antislavery.
  • Finkelman, Paul, ed. 1999. Encyclopedia of Slavery.
  • Lal, K. S. 1994. Muslim Slave System in Medieval India. ISBN 81-85689-67-9.
  • Gordon, M. 1989. Slavery in the Arab World.
  • Greene, Jacqueline. 2001. Slavery in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. ISBN 0-531-16538-8.
  • Hogendorn, Jan, et Johnson Marion. 1986. The Shell Money of the Slave Trade. African Studies Series, 49. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press.
  • Miers, Suzanne, et Igor Kopytoff, eds. 1979. Slavery In Africa: Historical & Anthropological Perspectives.
  • Morgan, Kenneth. 2008. Slavery and the British Empire: From Africa to America.
  • Postma, Johannes. 2003. The Atlantic Slave Trade.
  • Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. 1997. The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery.
  • Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. 2007. Slavery in the United States: A Social, Political, and Historical Encyclopedia.
  • Shell, Robert Carl-Heinz. 1994. Children Of Bondage: A Social History of the Slave Society at the Cape of Good Hope, 1652–1813.
  • Westermann, William Linn. 1955. The Slave Systems of Greek and Roman Antiquity. ISBN 0-87169-040-3.
Civitates Foederatae
Servitudo aevo hodierno
  • Bales, Kevin. 2004. Disposable People. New Slavery in the Global Economy. Ed. retractata. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24384-6.
  • Bales, Kevin, ed. 2005. Understanding Global Slavery Today: A Reader. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24507-5freak.
  • Bales, Kevin. 2007. Ending Slavery: How We Free Today's Slaves. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-25470-1.
  • Brass, Tom. 1999. Towards a Comparative Political Economy of Unfree Labour: Case Studies and Debates. Londinii et Portlandiae Oregoniae: Frank Cass Publishers.
  • Brass, Tom, et Marcel van der Linden, eds. 1997. Free and Unfree Labour: The Debate Continues. Bernae: Peter Lang AG.
  • Brass, Tom, Marcel van der Linden, et Jan Lucassen. 1993. Free and Unfree Labour. Amstelodami: International Institute for Social History.
  • Craig, Gary, Aline Gaus, Mick Wilkinson, Klara Skrivankova, et Aidan McQ&shy. 2007. Contemporary slavery in the UK: Overview and key issues. Joseph Rowntree Foundation. ISBN 978-1-85935-573-2.
  • Nazer, Mende, et Damien Lewis. 2003. Slave: My True Story. ISBN 1-58648-212-2.
  • Sage, Jesse, et Liora Kasten. 2008. Enslaved: True Stories of Modern Day Slavery. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-7493-8.
  • Somaly Mam Foundation
  • Sowell, Thomas. 2005. The Real History of Slavery. In Black Rednecks and White Liberals. Franciscopole: Encounter Books. ISBN 978-1-59403-086-4.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Commons-logo.svg Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad servitudinem spectant.
Wiktionary-ico-de.png Vide Servitudo in Victionario.
Wikiquote-logo.svg Vicicitatio habet citationes quae ad Servitudo spectant.

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