Mustapha Cemal Ataturcus

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Mustapha Cemal Ataturcus[1] (18811938), post primum bellum mundanum rem publicam Turcarum restituit atque reformavit.

Vita et facta[recensere | fontem recensere]

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Mustafa Kemal natus est Thessalonicae anno 1881. Dux diuturna militia spectatus, cum anno 1915 Britannos, ne ad Constantinopolim procedere possent, prohibuisset, quominus Hellesponto potirentur, quamvis Turcia bello superata esset, anno 1921, quidquid supererat de imperio Turcarum imperatore invito tam feliciter redintegravit, ut Graecorum exercitum Asiae Occidentalis occupandae cupidum e finibus patriae propellere posset. Graecos autem ipsos, qui diutius duobus milibus annorum et septingentis in Asia habitaverant, numero ad ter decies centena milia, in Graeciam expulit, Turcarum ex Europa ortorum ad quater centena milia in Turciam recepit.

Quam ob rem auctoritas eius tanta est facta ut, cum in re publica ad exemplum populorum Europaeorum radicitus renovanda et restituenda, nihil non moliretur: omnia facile impetraverit. Abolito igitur regno et pontificatu imperatoris summaque rerum Constantinopoli Ancyram translata cultum religionis a rebus publicis procul removit feminasque eiusdem iuris esse curavit atque viros. Quas leges ne quis converteret, id quod nostra aetate iudicantibus tyrannico quodam more fecisse videtur, quae gentes quam populus Turcarum multitudine minores in Turcia sedes habent, velut Curdae, Armenii, Lases, eas linguis institutionibus moribusque oppressis sub Turcarum nomine coegit omnes et exercitui custodiam rei publicae perpetuam mandavit.

Mortuus est Ataturcus Constantinopoli die 10 Novembris 1938.

Quibus honoribus affectus sit[recensere | fontem recensere]

Quae cum ita sint, cives eius tamquam deum paene aliquem aut heroa saltem venerantur Mustapham Cemalem, cui anno 1934, ut vero patri patriae, a parlamento Turcarum Ataturci cognomen additum est, quo verbo 'pater Turcarum' significatur.

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Warning icon.svg Fons nominis Latini desideratus (addito fonte, hanc formulam remove)

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Ahmad, Feroz. 1993. The Making of Modern Turkey. Londinii, Novi Eboraci: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-07835-1.
  • Armstrong, Harold Courtenay. 1972. Grey Wolf, Mustafa Kemal: An Intimate Study of a Dictator. Freeport Novi Eboraci: Books for Libraries Press. ISBN 978-0-8369-6962-7.
  • Atillasoy, Yüksel (2002). Atatürk: First President and Founder of the Turkish Republic. Woodside, NY: Woodside House. ISBN 978-0971235342 
  • Barber, Noel (1988). Lords of the Golden Horn: From Suleiman the Magnificent to Kemal Ataturk. London: Arrow. ISBN 978-0099539506 
  • Barlas, Dilek (1998). Statism and Diplomacy in Turkey: Economic and Foreign Policy Strategies in an Uncertain World, 1929–1939. New York: Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-9004108554 
  • Cleveland, William L (2004). A History of the Modern Middle East. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. ISBN 978-0813340487 
  • Dogan, Çagatay Emre (2003) (Turkish). Formation of Factory Settlements Within Turkish Industrialization and Modernization in 1930s: Nazilli Printing Factory. Ankara: Middle East Technical University 
  • Huntington, Samuel P. (2006). Political Order in Changing Societies. New Haven, Conn.; London: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300116205 
  • Igdemir, Ulug; Mango, Andrew (translation) (1963). Atatürk. Ankara: Turkish National Commission for UNESCO. pp. 165–170 
  • Inan, Ayse Afet (2007) (Turkish). Atatürk Hakkinda Hatiralar ve Belgeler. Istanbul: Türkiye Is Bankasi Kültür Yayinlari. ISBN 9944881401 
  • Inan, Ayse Afet; Sevim, Ali; Süslü, Azmi; Tural, M Akif (1998) (Turkish). Medeni bilgiler ve M. Kemal Atatürk'ün el Yazilari. Ankara: AKDTYK Atatürk Arastirma Merkezi. ISBN 978-9751612762 
  • Kinross, Patrick (2003). Atatürk: The Rebirth of a Nation. London: Phoenix Press. ISBN 978-1842125991 
  • Kinross, Patrick (1979). The Ottoman Centuries: The Rise and Fall of the Turkish Empire. New York: Morrow. ISBN 978-0688080938 
  • Landau, Jacob M (1983). Atatürk and the Modernization of Turkey. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. ISBN 978-0865319868 
  • Lengyel, Emil (1962). They Called Him Atatürk. New York: The John Day Co 
  • Mango, Andrew (2002) [1999]. Ataturk: The Biography of the Founder of Modern Turkey (Paperback ed.). Woodstock, NY: Overlook Press, Peter Mayer Publishers, Inc. ISBN 1-58567-334-x 
  • Mango, Andrew (2004). Atatürk. London: John Murray. ISBN 978-0719565922 
  • Saikal, Amin; Schnabel, Albrecht (2003). Democratization in the Middle East: Experiences, Struggles, Challenges. Tokyo: United Nations University Press. ISBN 978-9280810851 
  • Shaw, Stanford Jay; Shaw, Ezel Kural (1976–1977). History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521212809 
  • Spangnolo, John (1992). The Modern Middle East in Historical Perspective: Essays in Honour of Albert Hourani. Oxford: Middle East Centre, St. Antony's College. ISBN 978-0863721649 
  • Tunçay, Mete (1972) (Turkish). Mesaî : Halk Sûrâlar Firkasi Programi, 1920. Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi 
  • Tüfekçi, Gürbüz D (1981). Universality of Atatürk's Philosophy. Ankara: Pan Matbaacilik 
  • Yapp, Malcolm (1987). The Making of the Modern Near East, 1792–1923. London ; New York: Longman. ISBN 978-0582493803 
  • Webster, Donald Everett (1973). The Turkey of Atatürk; Social Process in the Turkish Reformation. New York: AMS Press. ISBN 978-0404563332 
  • Zürcher, Erik Jan (2004). Turkey: A Modern History. London; New York: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1850433996 
Diurna

Vide etiam[recensere | fontem recensere]

Nexus externus[recensere | fontem recensere]

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