Metaphora

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Adumbratio politica in Puck magazina a S. D. Ehrhart facta (1894) mulierem agricolam Democratic Party (Ieffersoniana) monstrat nominatam quae se turbine commutationis politicae defendit.
Vocabulum ira arte oculorum redditum.
Candelae fractae in sepulcrali mulieris Iudaicae lapide sunt metaphora vitae finitae.

Metaphora[1] (a Graeco μεταφορά 'translatio',[2] < μεταφέρω 'transferre'[3] < μετά 'inter'[4] + φέρω 'ferre'[5]), sive Latine classica translatio,[6][7][8] verba translata,[9] figura,[10] vel traductio,[11] est figura loquendi quae rem describit dicens eam, quae ad certam causam comparationis spectat, esse eandem rem cum alia re aliter non cognata, vel usus vocabuli cuiusdam significationis similis in loco alterius vocabuli. Metaphora ergo est genus analogiae, aliisque figuris loquendi arte conectitur quae effectus rhetoricos per societatem vel comparationem habent, inter quos allegoria, hyperbole, et similitudo. Verbis simplicioribus, binas comparat res sine vocabulis ut vel sicut.

Structura[recensere | fontem recensere]

I. A. Richards, rhetor Anglicus, in libro The Philosophy of Rhetoric anno 1936 divulgato, metaphorae tribuit duas partes: tenorem et vehiculum. Tenor est res cui certa attributa ascribuntur; vehiculum est res cuius attributa mutuum sumunt. Alii scriptores vocabulis causa vel ratio (Anglice ground) et figura ad designandos tenorem et vehiculum utuntur. Linguistae cognitivae vocabulis scopos et fons similiter utuntur.

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Quintilianus, in John T. White, An English-Latin Dictionary (Sicagi: Follett Publishing, 1928), p. 232.
  2. μεταφορά, Henry George Liddell et Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, in Perseus
  3. μεταφέρω, Henry George Liddell et Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, in Perseus
  4. μετά, Henry George Liddell et Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, in Perseus
  5. φέρω, Henry George Liddell et Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, in Perseus
  6. Ainsworth's.
  7. D. P. Simpson, Cassell's Latin Dictionary (Novi Eboraci: Wiley Publishing, 1968), p. 763.
  8. John T. White, An English-Latin Dictionary (Sicagi: Follett Publishing, 1928), p. 232.
  9. D. P. Simpson, Cassell's Latin Dictionary (Novi Eboraci: Wiley Publishing, 1968), p. 763.
  10. Cicero, in John T. White, An English-Latin Dictionary (Sicagi: Follett Publishing, 1928), p. 232.
  11. Ainsworth's.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Arduini, Stefano, ed. 2007. Metaphors. Romae: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura.
  • Aristoteles. Poetics. Trans. I. Bywater. In The Complete Works of Aristotle: The Revised Oxford Translation. (1984). 2 voll. Ed. Jonathan Barnes. Princetoniae, Princeton University Press.
  • Richards, I. A. 1936. The Philosophy of Rhetoric. Oxoniae: Oxford University Press.
  • Black, Max. 1954. Metaphor. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 55:273–294.
  • Black, Max. 1962. Models and metaphors: Studies in language and philosophy. Ithacae: Cornell University Press.
  • Black, Max/ 1979. More about Metaphor. In Metaphor and Thought, ed. A. Ortony.
  • Cazeaux, Clive. 2007. Metaphor and Continental Philosophy: From Kant to Derrida. Novi Eboraci: Routledge.
  • Cohen, L. J. 1979. The Semantics of Metaphor. In Metaphor and Thought, ed. A. Ortony.
  • Davidson, Donald. (1978) 1984. What Metaphors Mean. In Inquiries Into Truth and Interpretation. Oxoniae: Oxford University Press.
  • Dirvens, René, et Ralf Pörings, eds. 2002. Metaphor and Metonymy in Contrast. Berolini: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Derrida, Jacques. 1982. White Mythology: Metaphor in the Text of Philosophy. In Margins of Philosophy, conversus Alan Bass. Sicagi: University of Chicago Press.
  • Fass, Dan. 1988. Metonymy and Metaphor: What's the Difference? In Proceedings of the 12th Conference on Computational Linguistics, vol 1, 177–181. DOI 10.3115/991635.991671. ISBN 963-8431-56-3.
  • Jakobson, Roman. (1956) 1995. Two Aspects of Language and Two Types of Disturbances. In On Language, edd. Linda Waugh et Monique Monville-Burston. Cantabrigiae Massachusettae: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-63536-1.
  • Lakoff, George, et M. Johnson. 1980. Metaphors We Live By. Sicagi: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-46801-1.
  • Low, Graham. An Essay is a Person. In Researching and Applying Metaphor, ed. Lynne Cameron et Graham Low, 221–248. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-64964-3.
  • Peters, Wim. 2003. Metonymy as a cross-lingual phenomenon. In Proceedings of the ACL 2003 Workshop on Lexicon and Figurative Language, 14:1–9. DOI 10.3115/1118975.1118976.
  • Punter, David. 2007. Metaphor. Londinii: Routledge.
  • Ricoeur, Paul. 1978. The Rule of Metaphor: Multi-Disciplinary Studies in the Creation of Meaning in Language. Conv. Robert Czerny cum Kathleen McLaughlin et John Costello. Londinii: Routledge and Kegan Paul 1978.
  • Searle, John. 1979. "Metaphor." In Metaphor and Thought, ed. A. Ortony.
  • Underhill, James W. 2011. Creating Worldviews: Metaphor, Ideology & Language. Edinburgi: Edinburg University Press.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Wiktionary-ico-de.png Vide metaphoram in Victionario.
Wikiquote-logo.svg Vicicitatio habet citationes quae ad metaphoram spectant.


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