Danaus (genus)

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Danaus
Male Danaus chrysippus
Taxinomia
Regnum: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Classis: Insecta
Ordo: Lepidoptera
Familia: Nymphalidae
Subfamilia: Danainae
Tribus: Danaini
Genus: Danaus
(Kluk, 1780)
Species Typica
Papilio plexippus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Species
  • 12-13 species. Vide commentarium.

Danaus (Anglice tiger,[1] milkweed, monarch, queen) est genus papilionum subfamiliae Danainarum familiae Nymphalidarum, omnem per orbem terrarum, praecipue in America Septentrionali, America Australi, Africa, Asia, Indonesia, et Australia endemicus.

Taxinomia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Post recognitionem commentarii Smith et al. (2005), duodecim species late accipiuntur secundum morphologicam mtDNA 12S rRNA, et cytochrome c oxidase? subunit? I, et DNA nuclearis 18S rRNA et EF1? subunitas α sequentia:

Hoc genus olim in subgenera Danaum, Salaturam, et Anosiam diffissum est, sed haec dispositio abolita est.

Hybridizatio quae progenies fertiles gignit inter nonnullas species fieri agnoscitur, res mtDNA confundens; hoc videtur praecipue verum in D. dorippo (Smith et al. 2005). Praeterea, Spiroplasma, contagio quae mares inferficit, in D. chrysippo monstrata est, et probabiliter in aliis speciebus fit (Jiggins et al. 2000); consequentiae pro speciatione et evolutione probabiliter sunt similes illorum in contagione ex bene investigatis generis Wolbachiae varietatibus, quae etiam mares interficiunt.

Phylogenia[recensere | fontem recensere]


Tirumala septentrionis



Tirumala limniace





Danaus plexippus



Danaus erippus






Danaus genutia




Danaus melanippus



Danaus affinis





Danaus ismare





Danaus eresimus



Danaus gilippus





Danaus petilia





Danaus dorippus dorippus-2



Danaus d. bataviana





Danaus chrysippus chrysippus



Danaus c. orientis



Danaus c. alcippus






Danaus d. dorippus-1



Phylogenis generis (sine Danaus cleophile).[2]

Synonyma specierum et subspecierum[recensere | fontem recensere]

Tribus Danaini Boisduval, 1833

  • Danaus Kluk, 1802 ( = Danaida Latreille, 1804; = Limnas Hübner, 1806; = Danais Latreille, 1807; = Danaus Latreille, 1809; = Anosia Hübner, 1816; = Festivus Crotch, 1872; = Salatura Moore, 1880; = Nasuma Moore, 1883; = Tasitia Moore, 1883; = Danaomorpha Kremky, 1925; = Panlymnas Bryk, 1937; = Diogas d'Almeida, 1938)
    • Danaus cleophile (Godart, 1819) (primum nomen = Danais cleophile Godart, 1819)
    • Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus, 1758) (primum nomen = Papilio plexippus Linnaeus, 1758; = misippiformis Meuschen, 1781; = archippus Fabricius, 1793; = menippe Hübner, 1816; = megalippe Hübner, 1826; = leucogyne Butler, 1884; = fumosus Hulstaert, 1886; = pulchra Strecker, 1900; = nigrippus Haensch, 1909; = americanus Gunder, 1927; = nivosus Gunder, 1927; = curassavicae Fabricius, 1938; = portoriciensis Clark, 1941; = tobagi Clark, 1941; = disjuncta Dufrane, 1948; = bipunctata Dufrane, 1948; = obliterata Dufrane, 1948)
    • Danaus erippus (Cramer, 1775) (primum nomen = Papilio erippus Cramer, 1775 ( = larensis Köhler, 1929; = asclepiadis Fabricius, 1938)
    • Danaus ismare (Cramer, 1780) (primum nomen = Papilio ismare Cramer, 1780; = ismareola Butler, 1866; = fulvus Ribbe, 1890; = celebensis Rothschild, 1892; = felicia Fruhstorfer, 1907; = goramica Fruhstorfer, 1907; = alba Morishita, 1981)
    • Danaus genutia (Cramer, 1779) (primum nomen = Papilio genutia Cramer, 1779; = adnana Swinhoe, 1917; = albipars Talbot, 1943; = alexis Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914; = bandjira Martin, 1911; = bimana Martin, 1911; = connectens Moulton, 1921; = conspicua Butler, 1866; = grynion Fruhstorfer, 1907; = intensa Moore, 1883; = intermedia Moore, 1883; = kyllene Fruhstorfer, 1910; = laratensis Butler, 1883; = leucoglene Felder & Felder, 1865; = niasicus Fruhstorfer, 1899; = nipalensis Moore, 1877; = partita Fruhstorfer, 1897; = plexippus auctt. nec Linnaeus, 1758; = sumatrana Moore, 1883; = sumbana Talbot, 1943; = telmissus Fruhstorfer, 1910; = tuak Pryer & Cator, 1894; = tychius Fruhstorfer, 1910; = uniens Martin, 1911; = wetterensis Fruhstorfer, 1899; = yuchingkini Murayama & Shimonoya, 1960 (hybrid chrysippus x genutia, Kurosawa, 1973)
    • Danaus affinis (Fabricius, 1775) (primum nomen = Papilio affinis Fabricius, 1775; = abigar Eschscholtz, 1821; = adustus Godman & Salvin, 1882; = affinoides Fruhstorfer, 1899; = albistriga Talbot, 1943; = albonotata Howarth, 1962; = artenice Cramer, 1781; = aruana Moore, 1883; = astakos Fruhstorfer, 1906; = batjana Fruhstorfer, 1899; = bipuncta Talbot, 1943; = biseriata Butler, 1882; = bonguensis Fruhstorfer, 1899; = cecilia Bouganville, 1837; = chionippe Hübner, 1823; = cometho Godman & Salvin, 1888; = coriacea Fruhstorfer, 1906; = decentralis Fruhstorfer, 1899; = decipiens Butler, 1882; = decipientis Strand, 1914; = djampeana Van Eecke, 1915; = fergussonia Fruhstorfer, 1907; = ferruginea Butler, 1876; = fuliginosa Hagen, 1894; = fulgurata Butler, 1866; = fuscata Talbot, 1943; = galacterion Fruhstorfer, 1906; = gelanor Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914; = hegesippinus Röber, 1891; = insolata Butler, 1870; = jimiensis Miller & Miller, 1978; = jobiensis Grose-Smith, 1894; = kapaura Talbot, 1943; = kawiensis Fruhstorfer, 1899; = kiriwina Fruhstorfer, 1907; = leucippis Röber, 1891; = litoralis Doherty, 1891; = luxurians Fruhstorfer, 1907; = malayana Fruhstorfer, 1899; = molyssa Fruhstorfer, 1907; = mysolica Moore, 1883; = mytilene Felder & Felder, 1860; = nigrita Moore, 1883; = nore Swinhoe, 1917; = nubila Butler, 1866; = obscura Capronnier, 1886; = oesypera Talbot, 1943; = olga Swinhoe, 1917; = oros Fruhstorfer, 1907; = paradoxa Röber, 1939; = philene Stoll 1782; = piepersi Kalis, 1933; = pittakus Fruhstorfer, 1907; = pleistarchus Fruhstorfer, 1912; = pseudophilene Fruhstorfer, 1907; = pullata Butler, 1866; = rubrica Fruhstorfer, 1906; = sabrona Talbot, 1943; = sangira Fruhstorfer, 1899; = signata Talbot, 1943; = snelleni Kalis, 1933; = strephon Fruhstorfer, 1907; = subnigra Joicey & Talbot, 1922; = subnubila Fruhstorfer, 1907; = tambora Fruhstorfer, 1899; = taroena Van Eecke, 1915; = taruna Fruhstorfer, 1899; = transfuga Fruhstorfer, 1907; = tualana Talbot, 1943; = vandeldeni Kalis, 1933; = vorkeinus Röber, 1866; = wentholti Martin, 1914; = woodlarkiana Fruhstorfer, 1907)
    • Danaus melanippus (Cramer, 1777) (primum nomen = Papilio melanippus Cramer, 1777; = hegesippus Cramer, 1777; = lotis Cramer, 1779; = thoe Hübner, 1816; = edmondii Bougainville, 1837; = nesippus C. Felder, 1862; = eurydice Butler, 1884; = celebensis Staudinger, 1889; = erebus, Röber, 1891 ; = haruhasa Doherty, 1891; = pietersii Doherty, 1891; = taimanu Doherty, 1891; = fruhstorferi Röber, 1897; = keteus Hagen, 1898; = indicus Fruhstorfer, 1899; = malossona Fruhstorfer, 1899; = lotina Fruhstorfer, 1904; = umbrosus Fruhstorfer, 1906; = philozigetes Fruhstorfer, 1907; = mezentius Fruhstorfer, 1910; = meridionigra Martin, 1913; = edwardi Van Eecke, 1914; = insularis Moulton, 1921; = albescens Röber, 1927; = kotoshonis Matsumara, 1929; = camorta Evans, 1932)
    • Danaus eresimus (Cramer, 1777) (primum nomen = Papilio eresimus Cramer, 1777; = ares d'Almeida, 1944; = asclepidea Fabricius, 1938; = dilucida Forbes, 1939; = erginus Godman & Salvin, 1897; = estevana Talbot, 1943; = icensis Fuchs, 1954; = montezuma Talbot, 1943; = tethys Forbes, 1943)
    • Danaus plexaure (Godart, 1819) (primum nomen = Danais plexaure Godart, 1819; = brasiliensis Capronnier, 1874)
    • Danaus gilippus (Cramer, 1775) (primum nomen = Papilio gilippus Cramer, 1775; = berenice Cramer, 1779; = vincedoxici Hübner, 1816; = vincetoxici Hübner, 1816; = cleothera Godart, 1819; = manuja Eschscholtz, 1821; = xanthippus Felder & Felder, 1860; = thersippus Bates, 1863; = jamaicensis Bates, 1864; = strigosa Bates, 1864; = hermippus Felder & Felder, 1865; = nivosus Godman & Salvin, 1897; = esperanza Hoffman, 1924; = centralis Joicey & Talbot, 1925; = kempfferi Hall, 1925; = kerri Comstock, 1925; = vincetoxici Fabricius, 1938; = candidus Clark, 1941; = gilippina Hoffman, 1940; = wheeleri Talbot, 1943; = roedingeri Fuchs, 1954)
    • Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus, 1758) (primum nomen = Papilio chrysippus Linnaeus, 1758; = albinus Lanz, 1896; = amplifascia Talbot, 1943; = anomala Dufrane, 1948; = asclepiadis Gagliardi, 1811; = auriflava Van Eecke, 1914; = axantha Hayward, 1922; = bataviana Moore, 1883; = bipunctata Dufrane, 1948; = bowringi Moore, 1883; = candidata Hayward, 1922; = chrysipellus Strand, 1910; = clarippus Weymer, 1884; = completa Dufrane, 1948; = cratippus Felder, 1860; = deficiens Dufrane, 1948; = duplicata Dufrane, 1948; = duponti Dufrane, 1948; = evanescens Storace, 1949; = fuscippus Van Eecke, 1915; = gelderi Snellen, 1891; = hanoiensis Dufrane, 1948; = hypermnestra Stoneham, 1958; = impunctata Dufrane, 1948; = infumata Aurivillius, 1898; = joannisi Dufrane, 1948; = kanariensis Fruhstorfer, 1898; = lemeemagdalenae Lemeé, 1950; = limbata Matsumura, 1929; = luxurians Dufrane, 1948; = margarita Röber, 1926; = orientis Aurivillius, 1909; = ornata Dufrane, 1948; = petilia Stoll, 1790; = praealbata Froreich, 1928; = pseudopetilea Kalis, 1933; = radiata Dufrane, 1948; = reducta Dufrane, 1948; = rubra Van Eecke, 1915; = semialbinus Strand, 1910; = subpurpurea Matsumura, 1929; = subreducta Dufrane, 1948; = vigelii Heylaerts, 1884; = witteellus Overlaet, 1955; = yuchingkini Murayama & Shimonoya, 1960 (hybrid D. chrysippus x D. genutia)
      • Danaus chrysippus chrysippus (Linnaeus, 1758)
      • Danaus chrysippus aegyptius (Schreber, 1759) (primum nomen = Papilio aegyptius Schreber, 1759; = Danaus chrysippus klugii Butler, 1886; = Papilio alcippus Cramer, 1777; = Danaus chrysippus liboria Hulstaert, 1931; = Danaus chrysippus alcippoides Moore, 1883; = Danaus chrysippus dorippus Klug, 1845; = Danaus chrysippus transiens Suffert, 1900)

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Ackery, P., et R. Vane-Wright. 1984. Milkweed Butterflies: Their Cladistics and Biology. Londinii: British Museum (Natural History).
  • Jiggins, F. M., G. D. D. Hurst, C. D. Jiggins, J. H. G. v. D. Schulenburg, et M. E. N. Majerus. 2000. The butterfly Danaus chrysippus is infected by a male-killing Spiroplasma bacterium. Parasitology 120(5): 439–446. Formula:DOI (HTML abstractum)
  • Lushai, G., D. Goulson, J. A. Allen, N. Maclean, D. A. S. Smith, et I. J. Gordon. 2003. Incomplete sexual isolation in sympatry between subspecies of the butterfly Danaus chrysippus (L.) and the creation of a hybrid zone. Heredity 90(3), 236-246.
  • Smith, D. A. S., I. J. Gordon, G. Lushai, D. Goulson, J. A. Allen, et N. Maclean. 2002. Hybrid queen butterflies from the cross Danaus chrysippus (L.) x D. gilippus (Cramer): Confirmation of species status for the parents and further support for Haldane's Rule. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 76(4), 535-544.
  • Smith, D. A. S., G. Lushai, et J. A. A. Allen. 2005. A classification of Danaus butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) based upon data from morphology and DNA. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 144(2), 191-212.

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Pro aliis papilionibus Anglice tigers appellatis, vide genus Paranticam.
  2. Smith, David A.; Gugs Lushai and John A. Allen (June 2005). "A classification of Danaus butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) based upon data from morphology and DNA" (PDF). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 144 (2): 191–212 

Nexus externus[recensere | fontem recensere]

Wikispecies-logo.svg Vide Danaus apud Vicispecies.


Insecta Haec stipula ad insectum spectat. Amplifica, si potes!