Spirituale

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Mariana Anderson spirituale nigricolorum canit.

Spirituale vel spirituale nigricolorum[1][2] est carmen religiosum, plerumque Christianum, ab Africanis in servitutem redactis in Civitatibus Foederatis compositum. Spiritualia primum erant traditio oralis quae fidem Christianam impertiebant cum labores servitutis describerent. Spiritualia, quamquam primum carmina monophonica sine adiunctione sonica, hodie per ordinationes chorales harmoniis traditas optime nota sunt. Hoc genus carminum, unice in Civitatibus Foederatis genitum, distinctum musicae genus nunc agnoscitur.[3]

Terminologia et origo[recensere | fontem recensere]

Vox spirituale, a cantico spirituali[4] deducta, a versu Epistulae ad Ephesios 5:19 in Bibliorum versione regis Iacobi derivatur, qui monet: "implemini Spiritu Sancto, loquentes vobismetipsis in psalmis, et hymnis, et canticis spiritualibus, cantantes et psallentes in cordibus vestris Domino." Slave Songs of the United States, primum spiritualium nigricolorum corpus, anno 1867 editum est.[5]

Georgius Pullen Jackson musicologus spiritual, vocabulum Anglicum, ad latius hymnorum vulgarium spatium extendit, ut in libro White Spirituals in the Southern Uplands (1938) legitur. Vocabulum autem saepe ad ordinationes sequentes in normalioribus stylis hymnodicis Europaeoamericanis adhibitum est, et carmina temporum post manumissionem nunc comprehendit.

Multa rhythmica et sonica spiritualium nigricolorum elementa a fontibus Africanis derivari possunt, sed spiritualia nigricolorum sunt forma musica quae vernacularis est, proprietas experientiae religiosae in Civitatibus Foederatis Africanorum et eorum posterorum. Ea sunt exitus interactionis musicae et religionis Africae cum musica et religione originis Europaeae. Praeterea, haec interactio solum in Civitatibus Foederatis facta est. Africani qui se ad Christianitatem in aliis mundi regionibus traduxerunt, etiam adeo in Mari Caribico et America Latina, hoc genus non evolverunt.[6]

Nexus interni

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. "Negro Spiritual Singers". New Deal Network .
  2. "5th Annual Negro Spirituals Heritage Day". All About Jazz. 16 Iunii 2008 .
  3. "Why "Negro Spiritual" . . . A Note About Negro Spirituals". The "Negro Spiritual" Scholarship Foundation 
  4. Anglice: spiritual songs.
  5. Tom Faigin, "Negro Spirituals: Songs of Survival," www.jsfmusic.com.
  6. Murray 1976:64–65.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Ball, Edward. 1998. Slaves in The Family. Novi Eboraci: Ballantine Books. (Capitulum 17 Societatem Praeservationis Spiritualium attingit.)
  • Baraka, Amiri. 1999. Blues People: Negro Music in White America. Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-0-688-18474-2.
  • Barker, Thomas. 2015.Spatial Dialectics: Intimations of Freedom in Antebellum Slave Song. Journal of Black Studies 46(4).
  • Barton, William Eleazar. (1899), 1972. Old Plantation Hymns: A Collection of Hitherto Unpublished Melodies of the Slave and the Freeman, with Historical and Descriptive Notes. Liber reimpressus. Novi Eboraci: AMS Press.
  • Bauch, Marc A. 2013. Extending the Canon: Thomas Wentworth Higginson and African-American Spirituals. Monaci.
  • Berendt, Joachim-Ernst. 1955. Spirituals: Geistliche Negerlieder. Monaci: Nymphenburger Verlagshandlung.
  • Deutsch, Wilhelm Otto. 2007. Spirituals und Gospels sind nicht dasselbe. Thema: Gottesdienst 27:45-51. Ev. Kirche im Rheinland.
  • Dixon, Christa. 1967. Wesen und Wandel geistlicher Volkslieder: Negro Spirituals. Wupperthal: Jugenddienst-Verlag.
  • Dood, C. H. 1938. History and the Gospel. Oxoniae: Hooder and Stoughton.
  • Hefele, Bernhard. 1981. Jazz-Bibliographie: Verzeichnis des internationalen Schrifttums über Jazz, Blues, Spirituals, Gospel und Ragtime. Monaci: Saur. ISBN 3-598-10205-4.
  • Keding, Micha. Geschichte und Entwicklung der Gospelmusik. Textus.
  • Lehmann, Theo. (1963) 1991. Nobody Knows . . . , Negro Spirituals. Ed. 2a. Lipsiae: Koehler & Amelang.
  • Levine, Lawrence W. 1997. Slave Songs and Slave Consciousness: An Exploration in Neglected Sources. In African American Religion: Interpretive Essays in History and Culture, ed. Timothy E. Fulop et Albert J. Raboteau, 58-87. Novi Eboraci et Londinii: Routledge.
  • Murray, Albert. 1976. Stomping the Blues. Novi Eboraci: Da Capo. ISBN 0-306-80362-3.
  • Nash, Elizabeth. 2007. Autobiographical Reminiscences of African-American Classical Singers, 1853-Present. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press. ISBN 0-7734-5250-8.
  • Thomas, Velma Maia. 2001. No Man Can Hinder Me. Novi Eboraci: Becker & Mayer Books. ISBN 0-609-60719-7.
  • Work, John W., compilator. 1940. American Negro Songs and Spirituals: a Comprehensive Collection of 230 Folk Songs, Religious and Secular, with a Foreword. Novi Eboraci: Bonanza Books.
  • Zenetti, Lothar. 1963. Peitsche und Psalm, Negrospirituals + Gospelsongs. Monaci: Verlag J. Pfeiffer.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]