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'''Polynesia''' ([[Lingua Graeca|Graece]]: ''πολύς'' 'multi' + ''νῆσος'' 'insula') est regio [[Oceania|Oceanica]], quae plusquam mille insularum in [[Oceanus Pacificus Centralis|Oceano Pacifico Centrali]] et [[Oceanus Pacificus Australis|Australi]] amplectitur.
[[ImagoFasciculus:Map OC-Polynesia.PNG|thumb|Tabula Polynesiam monstrans]]<!-- NB: This map isn't the best available; from Polynesia, it omits Fiji and the Polynesian outliers farther west: the map in Douglas Oliver's ''The Pacific Islands'' is better, as are others.-->
== Definitio ==
Polynesia universe consistit in insulis intus in [[Triangulum Polynesium|Triangulo Polynesio]]. Terminus ''Polynesia'' abs [[Carolus de Brosses|Carolo de Brosses]] anno [[1756]] primum adhibitus est. <!--, and originally applied to all the [[Pacific islands|islands of the Pacific]]. [[Iulius Dumont d'Urville]] in acroasi anni [[1831]] to the Geographical Society of Paris proposed a restriction on its use.
The Polynesian people are by ancestry a subset of the sea-migrating [[Austronesian people]] and the tracing of Polynesian languages places their [[prehistory|prehistoric]] origins in the [[Malay archipelago]]. The spread of pottery and domesticates in Polynesia is connected with the [[Lapita]]-culture that, around 1600&ndash;12001600–1200 [[Anno Domini|BC]], started expanding from [[New Guinea]] as far east as [[Fiji]], [[Samoa]] and [[Tonga]]. During this time the aspects of the Polynesian culture developed. Around 300 BC this new Polynesian people spread from Fiji, Samoa and Tonga to the [[Cook Islands]], [[Tahiti]], the [[Tuamotus]] and the [[Marquesas Islands]]. This was supported by [[Patrick Kirch]] and [[Marshall Weisler]] when they performed [[X-ray]] fluorescence sourcing of [[basalt]] artifacts found on both islands.<ref>{{cite web | title=History of Polynesian Archaeology | url=http://sscl.berkeley.edu/~oal/background/polyhist.htm | accessdate=November 18 | accessyear=2005 }}</ref>
Between 300 and 1200 [[Common Era|CE]], the Polynesians discovered and settled [[Rapa Nui]] (Easter Island). This is supported by archaeological evidence as well as the introduction of flora and fauna consistent with the Polynesian culture and characteristic of the tropics to this subtropical island. Around [[Anno Domini|AD]] 400 [[Hawai'i]] was settled by the Polynesians and around AD [[1000]] [[Aotearoa]] (New Zealand) was settled as well. The migration of the Polynesians is impressive considering that the islands settled by them are spread out over great distances&mdash;thedistances—the Pacific Ocean covers nearly a half of the Earth's surface area. Most contemporary cultures, by comparison, never voyaged beyond sight of land.-->
== Culturae Polynesiae ==
[[ImagoFasciculus:Paul Gauguin 056.jpg|thumb|left|''Feminae Tahitianae apud Litus,'' a [[Paulus Gauguin|Paulo Gauguin]] picta. Lutetiae: [[Musée d'Orsay]]]]
Polynesia in duas distinctas classes culturales divitur: [[Polynesia Orientalis|Polynesiam Orientalem]] et [[Polynesia Occidentalis|Polynesiam Occidentalem]].<!-- The culture of West Polynesia is conditioned to high populations. It has strong institutions of marriage and well-developed judicial, monetary and trading traditions. It comprises the groups of [[Tonga]], [[Niue]], [[Samoa]] and the northwestern [[Polynesian outlier]]s.
Religion, [[farming]], [[fishing]], weather prediction, out-rigger canoe (similar to modern [[catamaran]]s) construction and [[navigation]] were highly developed skills because the population of an entire island depended on them. Trading of both luxuries and mundane items was important to all groups. Many low-lying islands could suffer severe famine if their gardens were poisoned by the salt from the storm-surge of a hurricane. In these cases fishing, the primary source of protein, would not ease loss of [[food energy]]. Navigators, in particular, were highly respected and each island maintained a house of navigation with a canoe-building area.
Settlements by the Polynesians were of two categories. The [[hamlet (place)|hamlet]] and the [[village]]. Size of the island inhabited determined whether or a not a hamlet would be built. The larger [[volcanic]] islands usually had hamlets because of the many zones that could be divided across the island. Food and resources were more plentiful and so these settlements of four to five houses (usually with gardens) were established so that there would be no overlap between the zones. Villages, on the other hand, were built on the coasts of smaller islands and consisted of thirty or more houses&mdash;inhouses—in the case of atolls, on only one of the group so that food cultivation was on the others. Usually these villages were fortified with walls and palisades made of stone and wood.<ref>Encyclopedia Britannica, 1995.</ref>
However, New Zealand demonstrates the opposite; large volcanic islands with fortified villages.
With the exception of New Zealand, the majority of independent Polynesian islands derive much of their income from foreign aid and remittances from those who live in other countries. Some encourage their young people to go where they can earn good money to remit to their stay-at-home relatives. Many Polynesian locations, such as Easter Island, supplement this with tourism income.<ref>{{cite web | title=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Easter_Island | url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Easter_Island | accessdate=November 18 | accessyear=2005 }}</ref> Some have more unusual sources of income, such as Tuvalu which marketed its '[[.tv]]' internet top-level domain name<ref>{{cite web | title=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_Tuvalu | url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_Tuvalu | accessdate=November 18 | accessyear=2005 }}</ref> or the Cooks that relied on [[Postage stamp|stamp]] sales. A very few others still live as they did before Western Civilization encountered them.-->
== Navigatio Polynesia ==
[[ImagoFasciculus:Priests traveling across kealakekua bay for first contact rituals.jpg|thumb|Polynesian (Hawaiian) navigators sailing multi-hulled canoe, ca 1781]] <!--
At a time when [[Europe]]an [[sailors]] were [[navigation|navigating]] by keeping a watch for the shoreline in daylight, Polynesians were navigating a vast extent of the [[Pacific Ocean]]. Polynesia comprised islands diffused throughout a triangular area with sides of four thousand miles. The area from the Hawaiian Islands in the north, to Easter Island in the east and to New Zealand in the south was all settled by Polynesians. From a single chicken bone recovered from the archaeological site of El Arenal-1, on the Arauco Peninsula, Chile, recent research of a radiocarbon date and an ancient DNA sequence indicates that Polynesian navigators also reached the Americas at least 100 years before Europeans, introducing chickens to South America.<ref>[http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/05/science/05chic.html?_r=1&adxnnl=1&oref=slogin&adxnnlx=1181091707-e+ZDVqnF+pbc2icNHD+SfQ First Chickens in Americas Were Brought From Polynesia], by John Noble Wilford, New York Times, June 5, 2007.</ref><ref>[http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/104/25/10335 Radiocarbon and DNA evidence for a pre-Columbian introduction of Polynesian chickens to Chile], by Alice A. Storey, ''et al.'', PNAS, June 19th, 2007.</ref>
"The following DNA evidence will help clarify the division between Polynesians, Melanesians and Micronesians.(S. W. Serjeantson “The Colonization of the Pacific – A Genetic Trail 1989 pp 135,162-163,166-7) "The following genes set them apart: Polynesians lack HLA-B27 , whereas it is common amongst Melanesians. Polynesians have had little contact with Micronesians. There are only a limited number of similarities in the HLA system. It is clear that Micronesia has had an independent source of HLA genes, probably from the Philippines, as indicated by the high frequency of HLA-Bw35 which is absent from Melanesian and Polynesian groups. HLA-B13, B18 and B27 are found throughout Melanesia. These antigens are sporadic in Western Polynesia and are essentially absent from the populations of Eastern Polynesia. The few sporadic occurrences are attributable to recent foreign admixture. These antigens are also rarely found in Micronesia. HLA-A11 and B40 are significantly associated with each other in Melanesia, but are not linked in Polynesian Populations. HLA data cannot support the theory of Polynesian evolution within Melanesia. Gene frequency distributions, as well as linkage relationships, clearly place Maoris of New Zealand in the Eastern Polynesian branch, together with Hawaiians and Easter Islanders. The HLA-A-B linkage relationships seen in Hawaiians are present also in Maoris and are consistent with a split in these populations 1,000 years ago." For more information on this, see ( http://users.on.net/~mkfenn/page5.htm and http://users.on.net/~mkfenn/page6.htm ).-->
== Circuli insularum ==
[[ImagoFasciculus:Moorea baie cook.JPG|thumb|left|[[Cook Sinus]] [[Moorea]]e in [[Polynesia Francica]]]]<!--The following are the islands and island groups, either nations or subnational territories, that are of native Polynesian culture. Some islands of Polynesian origin are outside the general triangle that geographically defines the region.-->
=== Polynesia Occidentalis ===
* [[Niue]], civitas libera cum [[Nova Zelandia]] libere associata
* [[Samoa]], civitas libera
* [[Uvea et Futuna]], territorium [[Francia]]e
=== Disiunctae Polynesiae Occidentalis culturae ===
* [[Anuta]], insula in [[Insulae Salomonis|Insulis Salomonis]]
* [[Bellona (insula)|Bellona]], insula in [[Insulae Salomonis|Insulis Salomonis]]
* [[Emae]], in [[Vanuatu]]
* [[Kapingamarangi]], insula in [[Foederatae Micronesiae Civitates|Foederatis Micronesiae Civitatibus]]
* [[Luangiua]], atollum in [[Insulae Salomonis|Insulis Salomonis]]
* Mele-Fila: [[Mele (Vanuatu)|Mele]], vicus, et [[Fila]], insula, in [[Vanuatu]]
* [[Pileni]], insula in [[Insulae Salomonis|Insulis Salomonis]]
* [[Rennell]], insula in [[Insulae Salomonis|Insulis Salomonis]]
* [[Rotuma]], insula in [[Viti|Vitiis]]is
* [[Sikaiana]], atollum in [[Insulae Salomonis|Insulis Salomonis]]
* [[Taku]], atollum in [[Papua Nova Guinea]]
* [[Tikopia]], insula in [[Papua Nova Guinea]]
=== Polynesia Orientalis ===
* [[Havaii|Havaiʻi]], civitas [[Civitates Foederatae Americae|Foederatarum Americae Civitatum]]
* [[Insulae Cook]], civitas libera cum [[Nova Zelandia]] libere associata
* [[Pitcairn Insulae]], territorium [[Britanniarum Regnum|Britannicum]]
* [[Polynesia Francica]], territorium [[Francia|Francicum]]
* [[Rapanui]], pars [[Chilia|TziliaTziliae]]e
== Vide etiam ==
* [[Index Polynesiorum notabilium]]
* [[Linguae Polynesiae]]
== Fontes ==
*Finney, Ben R. [[1976]]. New, Non-Armchair Research. In Ben R. Finney (1963), ''Pacific Navigation and Voyaging.'' The Polynesian Society.
*Finney, Ben R., ed. [[1976]]. ''Pacific Navigation and Voyaging.'' The Polynesian Society.
*Lewis, David. [[1976]]. A Return Voyage Between Puluwat and Saipan Using Micronesian Navigational Techniques. In Ben R. Finney (1963), ''Pacific Navigation and Voyaging.'' The Polynesian Society.
*Sharp, Andrew. [[1963]]. ''Ancient Voyagers in Polynesia.'' Longman Paul.
* Kayser, M., S. Brauer, G. Weiss, P. A. Underhill, L. Roewer, W. Schiefenhšfel, et M. Stoneking. [[2000]]. "Melanesian Origin of Polynesian Y Chromosomes." ''Current Biology'' 10:1237&ndash;12461237–1246
* Kayser, M., S. Brauer, G. Weiss, P. A. Underhill, L. Roewer, L., W. Schiefenhšfel, et M. Stoneking. [[2000]]. "Melanesian Origin of Polynesian Y Chromosomes (correction)." ''Current Biology'' 11:1&ndash;21–2.
== Nexus externi ==
*[http://www.southpacific.org/ South Pacific Organizer]
*[http://www.tritonfilms.com/lewisreview.htm Lewis commenting on ''Spirits of the Voyage'']
*[http://www.abc.net.au/gnt/history/Transcripts/s1066068.htm Interview with David Lewis]
*[http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/11/15/1037080913844.html Obituary: David Henry Lewis&mdash;includingLewis—including how he came to rediscover Pacific Ocean navigation methods]
*[http://www.tropic-island.net/gallery/album.php?id_album=12 Photogallery - French Polynesia (Tahiti, Moorea, Motu Tiahura)]
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