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Naja

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Subphylum : Vertebrata 
Classis : Reptilia 
Ordo : Squamata 
Subordo : Serpentes 
Familia : Elapidae 
Genus : Naja 
Laurenti, 1768
   
Palaeontologia
Species typica

Naja est genus anguium venenosorum familiae Elapidarum. Species huius generis late per mundum veterem extenduntur et agnoscuntur. Fiunt species in regiones per Africam, Asiam Meridio-Occidentalem, Asiam Meridianam, et Asiam Meridio-Orientalem. Angues quos tirones insigniter cum Najis confundunt sunt Hemachatus haemachatus et Ophiophagus hannah, proprie generum monotypicorum Hemachati[1] et Ophiophagi.[2][3] Typus generis est Naja naja.

Generi Najae a viginti ad viginti duae species descriptae olim erant, sed genus nuper identidem emendatum est, ut fontes academici magnopere variant.[4] Emendatio autem anni 2009, latissime accepta,[5] docet genera Boulengerinam et Paranajam eadem ac Naja esse. Secundum illam emendationem, generi Najae nunc sunt 38 species.[6]

Descriptio[recensere | fontem recensere]

Species Najae longitudine variant, et corpora plurimarum sunt tenuia. Plurimae usque ad 1.84 metra longae crescunt; longitudines autem maximae sunt 3.1 fere metra, Naja melanoleuca fortasse longissima.[7] Omnes species anteriorem corporis quartam supra solum tollere, collumque complanare ad maiores videndas possunt.

Venenum[recensere | fontem recensere]

Species Najae maxime venenosae
Gradus Species LD50 subcutis
1 Naja oxiana 0.10 mg/kg[8]
2 Naja philippinensis 0.14 mg/kg[9][10]
3 Naja samarensis 0.21 mg/kg[11]
4 Naja melanoleuca 0.225 mg/kg[8][12]
5 Naja siamensis 0.25 mg/kg[8]
6 Naja atra 0.28 mg/kg[8][13]
7 Naja naja 0.29 mg/kg[8][13]
8 Naja nivea 0.37 mg/kg[13]
9 Naja kaouthia 0.47 mg/kg[8]
10 Naja sumatrana 0.60 mg/kg[14]

Taxinomia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Naja
(Naja)

Naja (Naja) naja





Naja (Naja) kaouthia



Naja (Naja) atra





Naja (Naja) mandalayensis



Naja (Naja) siamensis



Naja (Naja) sputatrix






(Afronaja)


Naja (Afronaja) pallida



Naja (Afronaja) nubiae





Naja (Afronaja) katiensis




Naja (Afronaja) nigricollis




Naja (Afronaja) ashei




Naja (Afronaja) mossambica



Naja (Afronaja) nigricincta








(Boulengerina)

Naja (Boulengerina) multifasciata





Naja (Boulengerina) christyi



Naja (Boulengerina) annulata




Naja (Boulengerina) melanoleuca




(Uraeus)

Naja (Uraeus) nivea




Naja (Uraeus) senegalensis




Naja (Uraeus) haje



Naja (Uraeus) arabica





Naja (Uraeus) annulifera



Naja (Uraeus) anchietae








Nexus interni

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

Insecatum Najae melanoleucae caput: A, dentes; B, glandula venenosa.
  1. Spawls, S; Branch, B (1995). The Dangerous Snakes of Africa (1st. ed.). Ralph Curtis Books. ISBN 9780883590294 .
  2. Zhao, E; Adler, K (1993). Herpetology of China (1st ed.). Society for the Study of Amphibians & Reptiles. pp. 522. ISBN 9780916984281 .
  3. Vogel, G (31 Martii 2006). Terralog: Venomous Snakes of Asia, Vol. 14 (1 ed.). Frankfurt Am Main: Hollywood Import & Export. pp. 148. ISBN 978-3936027938 .
  4. "Naja". apud Integrated Taxonomic Information System .
  5. Wallach, Van; Wüster, W; Broadley, Donald G. (2009). "In praise of subgenera: taxonomic status of cobras of the genus Naja Laurenti (Serpentes: Elapidae)". Zootaxa 2236 (1): 26–36 .
  6. Lapsus in citando: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Wuster18
  7. "Naja melanoleuca - General Details, Taxonomy and Biology, Venom, Clinical Effects, Treatment, First Aid, Antivenoms". WCH Clinical Toxinology Resource. University of Queensland .
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Lapsus in citando: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named IJEB
  9. Lapsus in citando: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named NP
  10. Brown 1973: 81.
  11. Lapsus in citando: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named M67
  12. Lapsus in citando: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named ErZug
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Minton, SA (1974). Venom diseases. Springfield Illinoesiae: Thomas Publisher, Limited, Charles C.. ISBN 978-0-398-03051-3 .
  14. Tan, N.H., Choy, S.K., Chin, K.M., et Gnanajothy, P. (1994). "Cross-reactivity of monovalent and polyvalent Trimeresurus antivenoms with venoms from various species of Trimeresurus (lance-headed pit viper) snake". Toxicon 32 (7): 849–853 .

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Broadley, Donald G. 1974. A review of the cobras of the Naja nigricollis complex in southwestern Africa (Serpentes, Elapidae). Windhoek, S.W. Africae: Staatsmuseum.
  • Brown, John H. 1973. Toxicology and Pharmacology of Venoms from Poisonous Snakes. Campifonte Illinoesiae: Charles C. Thomas. ISBN 978-0-398-02808-4. Editio interretialis.
  • Laurenti, Iosephus Nicolaus. 1768. Specimen medicum, exhibens synopsin reptilium emendatam cum experimentis circa venena et antidota reptilium austriacorum. Vindobonae: Joan Thomae. Editio interretialis.
  • Van Wallach, Wolfgang Wüster, et Donald Broadley. 2009. "In praise of subgenera: taxonomic status of cobras of the genus Naja Laurenti (Serpentes: Elapidae)." Zootaxa 2236 (1): 26–36. PDF.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Commons-logo.svg Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad Najam spectant.
Wiktionary-ico-de.png Vide Najam in Victionario.
Wikidata-logo.svg Situs scientifici:  • ITIS • NCBI • Biodiversity • Encyclopedia of Life • Fossilworks