Metatypia

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Metatypia est talis mutatio morphosyntactica et semantica, quae per contactum socialem locutorum multilinguium efficiatur. Nomen metatypiae (metatypy) a linguista Malcolm D. Ross factum est, qui terminum hac definitione describit (1999:7.1):

[Metatypia est] mutatio generis morphosyntactici et organizationis grammaticae [et exemplarium semanticorum] quae lingua ob bilingualismum eius loquentium in alia lingua patitur. Haec mutatio interpretatione grammatica perducitur; hoc est constructionalem imitari significationem ex lingua mutata ac novas novare structuras, materiam hereditate exceptam ad eas exprimendas adhibens. Comitans huius redintegrationis constructionum grammaticarum res saepe est redintegratio vel creatio paradigmatum functorum grammaticorum. . . . Usitate, lingua quae metatypiam patitur (lingua immutata) identitatem suorum loquentium exprimit, cum lingua quae exemplar metatypicum praebet sit lingua inter communia. Loquentes linguae immutatae commune constituunt tam strictum ut ei suam identitatem separatam et suam linguam ut signum illius identitatis bene sentiunt, sed nonnulli tantum loquentes bilingues lingua inter communia tam late utuntur ut eis magis commoda est quam lingua commune significanti.[1]

Ross (2002) has mutationes metatypicas cognoscit:

  1. "reorganizatio exemplarium semanticorum linguae et modorum rerum dictarum"
  2. "restructuratio? syntaxis, i.e. exemplaris in quibus morphemata concatenantur ad formandas
    • (i) sententias et clausas,
    • (ii) phrases, et
    • (iii) vocabula."

Ross praeterea cognoscit denuo constitionem semanticam ante restructurationem? syntacticam fieri. Mutationes syntacticae hoc ordine fiunt: (i) sententia/clausa, (ii) phrasis, (iii) verbum. Hic sunt nonnullae linguae quae metatypiam passae sunt:

Lingua mutata Linguae inter communitates
Takia (Oceanica) Waskia (Transnovaguineanae)
Anêm (Papuana Orientalis) Lusi (Oceanica)
Arvanitica (Albaniana, Indoeuropaea) Graeca (Indoeuropaea)
Mixe Vasconica Gasconica (Italica)
Phan Rang Cham (linguae Malayo-Polynesianae) Vietnamiensis (lingua Vietica)
Asia Minor Graeca (Indoeuropaea) Turkica (Turcica)
Ilwana (Benue–Congo) Orma (Cushitica)
Kupwar Kannada (Dravidiana) Kupwar Marathi (Indoiraniana)
Tariana (Maipureana) linguae Tucanoana
Kupwar Urdu (Indoiraniana) Kupwar Marathi (Indoiraniana)

Exemplum: Takia Papuanizata et Waskia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Exemplum a Ross datum (1999) est papuanizatio linguae Takiae (rami occidentalis familiae Oceanicae) ob momentum ex vicina lingua Waskia (familiae Madang, phyli Transnovaguinei). Hic, in notione Rossiana, Takia est "lingua modificata"; Waskia, "lingua inter communia." Waskia, autem, non videtur a Takia magnopere mota esse. Ambae linguae in usu in Lingua Karkar sunt. Effectu mutationis metatypicae Takia usitate Waska ad verbum convertit, ut hic:

Locutio Latine conversa: 'homo me ferit'
Takia: tamol an ŋai i-fun-ag=da
vir DET ego is-ferire-ego=IMP
Waskia: kadi mu aga umo-so
vir DET ego ferire-PRAES.is

Hoc par structurarum syntacticarum et semanticarum huic conversioni ad verbum facultatem facit. Inter mutationes grammaticas quas Takia patitur sunt:

Mutatio metatypicica Oceanica Occidentalis Nova   Takia Papuanizata
ordo verborum: SVO SOV
non deicticus determinator: nomen capitale antecedit caput sequitur
nomen attributivum: caput antecedit caput sequitur
coniuncta phrasis nominis: Phrasis Nominis + Coniunctio + Phrasis Nominis Phrasis Nominia + Phrasis Nominis + Postpositio
adpositio: praepositio postpositio

Mutationes diffusionales in Takia solum per metatypiam sunt; quod significat Takiam suam phonologiam non mutavisse et paene nulla verba a Waskia mutuata habere.

Nexus interni

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Anglice: "[Metatypy is a] change in morphosyntactic type and grammatical organisation [and also semantic patterns] which a language undergoes as a result of its speakers' bilingualism in another language. This change is driven by grammatical calquing, i.e. the copying of constructional meanings from the modified language and the innovation of new structures using inherited material to express them. A concomitant of this reorganisation of grammatical constructions is often the reorganisation or creation of paradigms of grammatical functors. . . . Usually, the language undergoing metatypy (the modified language) is emblematic of its speakers’ identity, whilst the language which provides the metatypic model is an inter-community language. Speakers of the modified language form a sufficiently tightknit community to be well aware of their separate identity and of their language as a marker of that identity, but some bilingual speakers, at least, use the inter-community language so extensively that they are more at home in it than in the emblematic language of the community."

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Haspelmath, Martin. 2004. How Hopeless Is Genealogical Linguistics, and How Advanced Is Areal Linguistics? Studies in Language 28(1):209–223. ISSN 03784177. OCLC 3404175. DOI 10.1075/sl.28.1.10has.
  • Ross, Malcolm D. 1996. Contact-Induced Change and the Comparative Method: Cases from Papua New Guinea. In The Comparative Method Reviewed: Regularity and Irregularity in Language Change, ed. Mark Durie et Malcolm Ross, 180–217. Novi Eboraci: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195066074. OCLC 31517888.
  • Ross, Malcolm D. 1997. Social Networks and Kinds of Speech-Community Event. In Theoretical and Methodological Orientations, ed. R. Blench et Matthew Spriggs, 209–261. Archaeology and Language 1. Londinii: Routledge. ISBN 9780415117609. OCLC 35673530.
  • Ross, Malcolm D. 1999. Exploring Metatypy: How Does Contact-Induced Typological Change Come About? Keynote talk, Australian Linguistic Society annual meeting, Perth. PDF.
  • Ross, Malcolm D. 2001. Contact-Induced Change in Oceanic Languages in North-West Melanesia. In Areal Diffusion and Genetic Inheritance, ed. Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald et R. M. W. Dixon, 134–166. Oxoniae: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198299813. OCLC 46601107.
  • Ross, Malcolm D. 2002. Constructions: Continuity and Contact. Textus, fasciculus PostScript.
  • Ross, Malcolm D. 2003. Diagnosing Prehistoric Language Contact. In Motivations for Language Change, ed. Raymond Hickey, 174–198. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521793032. OCLC 49650031.
  • Ross, Malcolm D. 2006. Metatypy. In Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Ed. 2a, ed. K. Brown. Oxoniae: Elsevier. ISBN 9780080442990. OCLC 61441874.
  • Ross, Malcolm D., et John Natu Paol. 1978. A Waskia Grammar Sketch and Vocabulary. Canberrae: Dept. of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. ISBN 9780858831742. OCLC 4524381.