|Pagina adhuc usque elaboratur...|
Haec pagina nondum perfecta in manibus auctoris est. Quapropter rogaris ut nihil nisi minora hic mutes, maiora autem ante disputes illic.
Si vero auctor ipse per septem dies nihil mutaverit, hanc formulam delere licet.
KEDGEREE, KITCHERY , s. Hind. khichṛī, a mess of rice, cooked with butter and dāl (see DHALL), and flavoured with a little spice, shred onion, and the like; a common dish all over India, and often served at Anglo-Indian breakfast tables, in which very old precedent is followed, as the first quotation shows. The word appears to have been applied metaphorically to mixtures of sundry kinds (see Fryer, below), and also to mixt jargon or lingua franca. In England we find the word is often applied to a mess of re-cooked fish, served for breakfast; but this is inaccurate. Fish is frequently eaten with kedgeree, but is no part of it. ["Fish Kitcherie" is an old Anglo-Indian dish, see the recipe in Riddell, Indian Domestic Economy, p. 437.] c. 1340 Le mondj [le mungo de Clusius]. C'est une espèce de mâch; mais ses grains sont allongés et sa couleur est d'un vert clair. On fait cuire le mondj avec du riz et on le mange assaisonné de beurre. C'est ce que l'on appelle kichry, et c'est avec ce mets que l'on déjeune chaque jour. Il est, pour les Indiens, ce qu'est dans le Maghreb la harîrah: Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, Peregrinatio (C. Defrémery, B. R. Sanguinetti, edd. et interprr., Voyages d'Ibn Batoutah [5 voll. Lutetiae: Société Asiatique, 1853-1859] vol. 3 p. 131 c. 1443. -- "The elephants of the palace are fed upon Kitchri." -- Abdurrazzāk, in India in X Vth Cent. 27. c. 1475. -- "Horses are fed on pease; also on Kichiris, boiled with sugar and oil; and early in the morning they get shishenivo" (?). -- Athan. Nikitin, in do., p. 10. c. 1590 : "Khichri, Rice, split dál, and ghí, 5 ser of each; ⅓ ser salt; this gives 7 dishes." -- Abu'l Faẓl "Famelicum ventrem familiari explent victu, quem vocant kitsery: componitur e pisis et pauxillo oryzae, haec ita mixta cum aqua foco admovent et tantisper reliquunt, donec legumina et far humorem omnem ebiberint; hic ferculum fere vesperi calidum pauxillo butyri affuso sumunt; per diem autem eadem pisa aut alia farra tosta mandunt".
1653. -- "Kicheri est une sorte de legume dont les Indiens se nourissent ordinairement. " -- De la Boullaye-le-Gouz, ed. 1657, p. 545.
1662 : Adamus Olearius, Ioannes Albertus de Mandelslo; John Davies of Kidwelly, interpr., The Voyages and Travels of the Ambassadors from the Duke of Holstein to the Great Duke of Muscovy and the King of Persia. Londinii, 1662 (pars 2 p. 81 apud Google Books) Trades-men ... must accordingly fare very poorly, their ordinary Diet being onely Kitsery, which they make of Beans pounded, and Rice, which they boile together in water till the water be consumed. Then they put thereto a little butter melted, and this is their supper, for all day they eat only rice and wheat in the grain.
1676-1679 : Et le soir quant ils en ont la commodité ils font du quichery, qui est du ris qu'ils font cuire avec une graine de ce nom dans l'eau et le sel. Pour le manger ils trempent auparavant le bout de leurs doigts dans du beurre fondu, et c'est la nourriture ordinaire tant des soldats que du pauvre peuple: Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, Les Six Voyages (vol. 2 pp. 284-285 apud Google Books).
1673 or 1698. -- "The Diet of this Sort of People admits not of great Variety or Cost, their delightfullest Food being only Cutcherry a sort of Pulse and Rice mixed together, and boiled in Butter, with which they grow fat." -- Fryer, New Acct. E.-India & Persia 81.
Again, speaking of pearls in the Persian Gulf, he says: "Whatever is of any Value is very dear. Here is a great Plenty of what they call Ketchery, a mixture of all together, or Refuse of Rough, Yellow, and Unequal, which they sell by Bushels to the Russians." -- Ibid. 320.
1696. -- Kitcheree is another dish very common among them, made of dol, that is, a small round pea and rice boiled together, and is very strengthening, tho' not very savoury. Of this the European sailers feed in those parts once or twice a week, and are forc'd at those times to a papgan abstinence from flesh: J. Ovington, A Voyage to Suratt in the Year 1689 (Londinii: Tonson, 1696) pp. 310-311
1727 A. Hamilton New Acct. E. Indies I. xiv. 161 Some Doll and Rice, being mingled together and boiled make Kitcheree, the common Food of the Country. They eat it with Butter and Atchar
1816 ‘Quiz’ Grand Master 51 The servant enters with a dish, Containing kedgeree and fish. 1867 Bp. Fraser in Hughes Life (1887) 143 Kedgeree is a capital thing for breakfast. 1879 Mrs. A. G. F. E. James Indian Househ. Managem. 88 Kegeree is composed of the remains of cold fish, and is usually a breakfast dish. 1880. -- "A correspondent of the Indian Mirror, writing of the annual religious fair at Ajmere, thus describes a feature in the proceedings: "There are two tremendous copper pots, one of which is said to contain about eighty maunds of rice and the other forty maunds. To fill these pots with rice, sugar, and dried fruits requires a round sum of money, and it is only the rich who can afford to do so. This year His Highness the Nawab of Tonk paid Rs. 3,000 to fill up the pots. . . . After the pots filled with khichri had been inspected by the Nawab, who was accompanied by the Commissioner of Ajmere and several Civil Officers, the distribution, or more properly the plunder, of khichri commenced, and men well wrapped up with clothes, stuffed with cotton, were seen leaping down into the boiling pot to secure their share of the booty." -- Pioneer Mail, July 8. [See the reference to this custom in Sir T. Roe, Hak. Soc. ii. 314, and a full account in Rajputana Gazetteer, ii. 63.]
Kegeree (kitchri) of the English type is composed of boiled rice, chopped bard-boiled egg, cold minced fish, and a lump of fresh butter: these are all tossed together in the frying-pan, flavoured with pepper, salt, and any minced garden herb such as cress, parsley, or marjoram, and served smoking hot.
Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]
- #De Laet (1631)
- They have also almost as many names for their dishes as the European cookery; but the three most common ones all over India is, currees, kitcharee, and pilow ... Kitcharee is only rice stewed, with a certain pulse they call Dholl, which they reckon very wholsome and nourishing, and is generally ate with salt fish, butter, and pickles of various sorts, to which they give the general name of achar.: #Grose (1757)
- #Kenney-Herbert (1883)
Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]
- Fontes antiquiores
- 1631 : Johannes De Laet, De imperio Magni Mogolis sive India vera commentarius. Lugduni Batavorum: ex officina Elzeviriana, 1631 (p. 117 apud Google Books)
- 1757 : John Henry Grose, A Voyage to the East-Indies, with Observations on Various Parts There. Londinii (pp. 240-242 apud Google Books)
- Eruditio recentior
- "Anglo-Indian Cookery: Kedgeree" in Alan Davidson, The Oxford Companion to Food (Oxonii: Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-19-211579-0) p. 20
- Sylvia M. Henderson, "Kedgeree" in Gastronomica vol. 1 (2001) pp. 91-92 JSTOR
- Cecilia Leong-Salobir, Food Culture in Colonial Asia: a taste of empire (Londinii: Routledge, 2011) p. 18
- "Kedgeree" in The Oxford English Dictionary (Oxonii: Clarendon Press, 1989. 20 voll.)
- Colleen Taylor Sen, Feasts and Fasts: a history of food in India (Londinii: Reaktion Books, 2015) pp. 106, 149, 186, 189, 223, 303
- "Kedgeree, kitchery" in H. Yule, A. C. Burnell; Gulielmus Crooke, ed., Hobson-Jobson. 2a ed. (Londinii: Murray, 1903) ~ ~
- c. 1500 : Nimmatnama-i-Nasiruddin-Shahi [en] (Norah M. Titley, ed. et interpr., The Ni'matnama Manuscript of the Sultans of Mandu: The Sultan's Book of Delights [Londinii: Routledge, 2004] pp. 15, 24-28, 34, 46, 54, 68, 76-77, 84, 93, 101-102)
- c. 1590 : Abū al-Faḍl al-Mubārak, Āīn-i-Akbarī (H. Blochmann, H. S. Jarrett, interprr., The Aín i Akbari by Abul Fazl Allámi [Calcuttae: Asiatic Society, 1873-1894] vol. 1 p. 59)
- post 1790 : Stephana Malcolm, liber praeceptorum apud Bibliothecam Nationalem Scoticam servatus Textus
- 1831 : Sandford Arnot, interpr., "Indian Cookery, as practised and described by the natives of the East" in Miscellaneous Translations from Oriental Languages vol. 1 (Londinii) fasc. 5 pp. 16-18 ("Khichary")
- 1852 : Robert F. Riddell, Indian domestic economy and receipt book (3a ed. Bombayae: Bombay Gazette Press) pp. 404, 406, 415 ("Doepeaza kitcherie, Kitcherie, Kitcherie pullow")
- 1861 : Isabella Beeton, Beeton's Book of Household Management (Londinii, 1861) pp. 135-136 ("Kegeree")
- 1883 : A. R. Kenney-Herbert, Culinary Jottings for Madras ... by "Wyvern" (4a ed. Maderaspatani: Higginbotham, 1883) p. 168 5a ed., 1885, p. 171 ("Kegeree [Kitchrí]")
- 1893 : Flora Annie Steel, Grace Gardiner, The complete Indian housekeeper and cook (3a ed. Edinburgi: Edinburgh Press, 1893) p. 396 ("Kidgeree")
- 1894 : Spons' Household Manual: a treasury of domestic receipts and guide for home management (Londinii: Spon) p. 500 ("Kedgeree")
- 1895 : Henrietta A. Hervey, Anglo-Indian cookery at home: a short treatise for returned exiles (Londinii: Cox) p. 18 ("Kitchery rice")
- 1903 : Ketab, Indian dishes for English tables. Londinii: Chapman & Hall, 1903 pp. 3, 45
- 1906 : Charles Herman Senn, ed., Mrs. Beeton's Book of Household Management (Londinii: Ward, Lock, 1906) p. 1608 ("Kidgeree")
- 1911 : Robert H. Christie, Banquets of the Nations: eighty-six dinners characteristic and typical each of its own country (Edinburgi: Gray) pp. 257-258 ("Bombay [Mussulman]: Kichri")
- 2021 : Meera Sodha, "Meera Sodha’s vegan recipe for tomato and turmeric kitchari" in The Guardian (17 Iulii 2021)