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Familia Song

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Painted image of a portly man sitting in a red throne-chair with dragon-head decorations, wearing white silk robes, black shoes, and a black hat, and sporting a black mustache and goatee.
Taizu Imperator Songensis (regnavit 960–976), pictura curialis.

Familia Song (Mandarinice 宋朝; pinyin Sòng cháo) fuit imperialis Sinarum familia, quae inter annos 960 et 1279 regnabat. Quam familiam Taizu imperator condidit, regno domus Zhou posterioris posterioris usurpato, quem temporis intervallum Quinque Familiarum et Decem Regnorum spatium terminavit. Familia ipsa saepenumero cum coaevo Liao, Xia Occidentali, et Jin, familiis Sinarum septentrionalium conflictaratur. Decenniis post resistentiae armatae meridianas Sinas defendentis, demum Mongoli, nomine familiae Yuan, dicioni suae subiecerunt.

A man in heavy white robes, wearing a black hat with long horizontal protrusions coming from the bottom of the hat.
Taizong Imperator Songensis (regnavit 976–997), pictura curialis.

Regnum Songense in duo temporis spatia dividitur: Song septentrionale et meridianum. Song septentrionali regnante (960–1127), caput urbis septentrionalis Bianjing (nunc Kaifeng) erat, et familia maximam partem moderabatur terrae quae nunc Sinae Orientales occupant. Song Meridianum (1127–1279) ad tempus pertinet postquam dynastia potestatem super dimidium septentrionale terrae dynastiae Jin in bellis Jin-Song amisit. Eo tempore, curia Song recessit meridiana parte Fluminis Caerulei et caput eius Lin'an constituebat.

Quamvis familia priorum terrarum Sinensium apud Flumen Flavum potestatem amisit, Imperium Song meridianum magnum regnicolarum numerum agrosque fecundos continuit, quae oeconomiam robustam sustinuerunt. Anno 1234, familiam Jin occupaverunt Mongoli, qui exinde Sinas septentrionales moderari coeperant, relationes difficiles cum Song meridiano conservantes. Möngke Imperii Mongolici chanis, anno 1259 obiit castellum Diaoyucheng obsessurus. Kublai, frater natu minor et successor chanis, mox imperator Sinensis declaratus, familiam Yuan condidit. Transactis belli praedatorii decennis, copiae chanis domum Song anno 1279 occupaverunt, devicerunt, Sinas dicione suae reuniverunt.

Bodhisattva ligneus ex domu Song (960–1279).

Aetate familiae Song technologia, scientia, philosophia, mathematica, et ars ingeniaria floruerunt. Domus inter primas refertur quae in historia mundi chartas nummarias exhibuerint classemque permanentem constituerunt. Imperium primum formulam chemicam pulveris incendiarii litteris mandavit, sicut sagittas lanceasque igniferas, bombas. Primo pyxi nautica septentrionem discreverunt, primo descriptionem cataractae tradiderunt, consilia horologii astronomici amelioraverunt.

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Bibliographia addita[recensere | fontem recensere]

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad domum Song spectant.