Manetho

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Papyrus Baden 4.59, verso (e saeculo quinto): fragmentum ex epitome Aegyptiacorum Manethonis.

Manetho (Graece Μανέθων, vel fortasse Μανέθως) sacerdos Aegypti antiquae fuisse putatur, qui, e Sebennyto (Aegyptice Tjebnutjer) urbe Aegypti inferioris ortus, per Regnum Ptolemaicum saeculo tertio a.C.n. ineunte ut videtur vixit.

Nomen[recensere | fontem recensere]

Primum Manethonis nomen Aegyptium ignotum est, sed historici nomen Manetho 'Veritatem Thoth', 'Donum Thoth', 'Amatum Thoth', 'Amatum Neith', et 'Amatorem Neith' significare coniectant.[1] Minores coniecturae sunt Myinyu-heter ('Armentarus' vel 'Agaso') et Ma'ani-Djehuti ('Thoth vidi'). Prima Graeca fragmenta exstantia (inscriptio temporis incerti in basi imaginis marmoreae e templo Serapis Carthagini sculpta[2]) et Flavius Iosephus, Iudaeus saeculi primi historicus, nomen Μανέθων scribunt. Nomen aliis litteris Graecis scriptum est Manethōs, Manethō, Manethos, Manēthōs, Manēthōn, Manethōth.

Vita[recensere | fontem recensere]

Manetho, fontibus temporum eius vitae carentibus, cum regnis Ptolemaei I Soteris (323–283 a.C.n.) a Plutarcho (circa 46120 p.C.n.) usitate coniungitur, ac secundum Georgium Syncellum Manetho se cum Ptolemaeo II Philadelpho (285–246 a.C.n.) recte coniungit. Si nomen cuiusdam Manethonis in Hibeh Papyri (241/240 a.C.n.) re vera est clarus Aegyptiacorum auctor, Manetho fortasse scribebat Ptolemaeo III Euergete (246–222 BC) regnante, quamquam senissimus. Iosephus auctoresque posteriores realitatem Manethonis Sebennyti acceperunt, sed num re vera exsisteret quaestio implicata manet.

Inscriptio in Hibeh Papyri caret, et haec epistula res in Aegypto superiori tractat, non in Aegypto inferiori, ubi Manetho principalis sacerdos fuisse putatur. Nomen Manetho rarum est, sed non necesse est a priori assumere Manethonem in Hibeh Papyri fuisse rerum gestarum scriptorem e Sebennyto qui Aegyptiaca pro Ptolemaio Philadelpho conscribere censetur.

Manetho indigena Aegypticus appellatur, et lingua Aegyptia eius patrius sermo fuerit. Quamquam eius argumenta solum res Aegyptias tractabant, solum Graece pro lectoribus Graecis scripsisse dicitur. Inter alia opera litterarum ei ascripta sunt Contra Herodotum, Liber Sacer, De antiquitate et religione, De festis, De praeparatione Kyphi, et Digestus physicae. Liber Sothis aliquando Manethoni attributus est. Haec opera aevo Ptolemaico non commemorantur, cum Manetho Sebennyticus vixisse dicitur. Non praeterea commemorantur in ullo fonte saeculi primi noto. Ergo hiatus trium saeculorum duravit antequam Aegyptiaca composita fuerint anteque eius primam attestationem. Qui hiatus aliis operibus Manethoni tributis maior est, sicut Liber sacer, qui primum ab Eusebio saeculo quarto commemoratus est.[3]

Nexus interni

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Waddell 1940: ix, n. 1.
  2. Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum viii, 1007: "ΜΑΝΕΘΩΝ."
  3. Waddell 1940: 188–189.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Barclay, John M. G., 2011. Flavius Josephus: Translation and Commentary, Volume 10: Against Apion. Brill. ISBN 9789004117914.
  • Cerqueiro, Daniel. 2012. "Aegyptos fragmentos de una aegyptiaca recóndita." Buenos Aires: Ed. Peq. Ven. ISBN 9789879239223.
  • Dillery, J. 1999. The First Egyptian Narrative History: Manetho and Greek Historiography. ZPE 127: 93-116.
  • Greenberg, Gary. 2004. Manetho: a study in Egyptian chronology: how ancient scribes garbled an accurate chronology of dynastic Egypt. Warren Center Pennsylvaniae: Shangri-La Publications. ISBN 0971468362, ISBN 0971468370.
  • Helck, Hans Wolfgang. 1975. Manethon (1). In Der kleine Pauly: Lexikon der Antike, auf der Grundlage von Pauly's Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, ed. Konrat Ziegler, Walter Sontheimer, et Hans Gärtner, 3: 952–953. Monaci: Alfred Druckenmüller Verlag. ISBN 0828867763.
  • Laqueur, Richard. 1928. Manethon. In Paulys Real-Encyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, ed. August Friedrich von Pauly, Georg Wissowa, et Wilhelm Kroll, 14: 1060–1106. Stuttgartiae: Alfred Druckenmüller Verlag. ISBN 347601018X.
  • Leahy, M. A. 1990. Libya and Egypt c1300–750 BC. London: School of Oriental and African Studies, Centre of Near and Middle Eastern Studies, and The Society for Libyan Studies.
  • Luban, Marianne. 2016. Manetho Demystified: A new light on the problems posed by the kinglist of Manetho.
  • Palmer, W. 1861. Egyptian Chronicles: Vol. II. Londinii.
  • Redford, Donald Bruce. 1986a. The Name Manetho. In Egyptological Studies in Honor of Richard A. Parker presented on the occasion of his 78th birthday, December 10, 1983, ed. Leonard H. Lesko, 118–121. Hanover et Londinii: University Press of New England. ISBN 0874513219.
  • Redford, Donald Bruce. 1986b. Pharaonic King-Lists, Annals and Day-Books: A Contribution to the Study of the Egyptian Sense of History. Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities Publications 4, series ed. Loretta M. James. Mississauga: Benben Publications. ISBN 0920168086.
  • Redford, Donald Bruce. 2001. Manetho. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt,, ed. Donald Bruce Redford, 2: 336–337. Oxoniae, Novi Eboraci, Cairi: Oxford University Press et The American University in Cairo Press. ISBN 0195102347.
  • Thissen, Heinz-Josef. 1980. Manetho. Lexikon der Ägyptologie, ed. Hans Wolfgang Helck et Wolfhart Westendorf, 3: 1180–1181. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. ISBN 3447014415.
  • Verbrugghe, Gerald P., et John Moore Wickersham. 1996. Berossos and Manetho, Introduced and Translated: Native Traditions in Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0472086871.
  • Waddell, William Gillian, ed. 1940. Manetho. The Loeb Classical Library 350, ser. ed. George P. Goold. Londinii et Cantabrigiae Massachusettae: William Heinemann et Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674993853.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]