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Linguae Uto-Aztecae

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Plerumque in Civitatibus Foederatis.
Plerumque in Mexico.

Linguae Uto-Aztecae, etiam Uto-Aztekae,[1] sunt familia linguarum quae in plus quam triginta linguis consistit, quarum paene omnes in Civitatibus Foederatis Occidentalibus et Mexico inveniuntur. Nomen familiae creatum est ut monstret eam linguam Utam Utae et linguas Aztecanas Mexici comprehendere.

Uto-Aztecana est una ex maximis familiis linguarum in Americis secundum numerum loquentium, distributionem geographicam, et numerum linguarum.[2] Sua septentrionalissima lingua est Shoshoni, in usu usque ad Salmon Idahi, cum meridianissima est lingua Pipil Salvatoriae. Ethnologue dicit summam linguarm in familia esse sexaginta unam, et summam loquentium 1 900 412.[3] Loquentes linguarum Nahuatl sunt paene quattuor partes (78.9%) eorum hominum.

Interna familiae descriptio familiam in duos ramos saepe dividit: ramum septentionalem, omnes linguas Civitatum Foederatarum, et ramum meridianum, omnes linguas Mexici comprehendens, sed nondum intellegitur num hoc exemplar classificationem geneticam vel geographicam significet. Rami principales infra hoc stratum classificationis bene accipiuntur: Numicae (linguis sicut Comanche et Shoshoni comprehensis) et linguae Californienses (olim grex Takicae appellatae), Cahuilla et Luiseño non exclusis, sunt plurimae ex linguis septentrionalibus, praeter Hopi et Tübatulabal. Linguae meridianae dividuntur in linguas Tepimanas (inter quas O'odham et Tepehuán), linguas Tarahumaranas (inter quas Raramuri et Guarijio, linguas Cahitan (Yaqui et Mayo), linguas Coracholanas (inter quas Cora et Huichol), et linguas Nahuanas. Patria linguarum Uto-Aztecanarum in Civitatibus Foederatis meridioccidentalibus vel fortasse Mexico boreoccidentali plerumque fuisse habetur, sed incertum est num familia in Mexico meridiano ortam esse, intra linguam linguisticam Mesoamericanam.

Linguae Uto-Aztecanae in usu sunt in montibus et terris humilibus Civitatum Foederatarum Occidentalium (in civitatibus Oregonia, Idaho, Montana, Uta, California, Nivata, Arizona) et Mexico (civitates Sonora, Chihuahua, Nayarit, Durango, Zacatecas, Jalisco, Michoacán, Guerrero, San Luis Potosí, Hidalgo, Puebla, Veracruz, Morelos, Civitas Mexici, et Mexicopolis). Nahuatl classica, lingua Azteorum, et eius progenies hodiernae ad familiam Uto-Aztecanam pertinent. Lingua Pipil, proles linguae Nahuatl, ad Mediam Americam migratione ex Mexico extenditur, et multi loquentes olim ibi habitabant. Nunc exstincta in Guatemala et Honduria, et paene exstincta in Salvatoria occidentali est, omnibus regionibus ubi Hispanica dominatur.

Classificatio genealogica linguarum Uto-Aztecanarum
Familia Greges Linguae Ubi in usu et numerus loquentium Opera
Linguae Uto-Aztecanae Uto-Aztecana Septentrionalis
(fortasse grex

arealis)

Numica Numic Occidentalis Paviotso, Bannock, Paiuta Septentrionalis 700 loquentes in California, Oregonia, Idaho, Nivata Nichols 1973
Mono Circa 40 loquentes in California Lamb 1958
Numica Centralis
Shoshoni, Goshiute 1000 loquentes et 1000 discipuli in Vyomina, Uta, Nivata, Idaho McLaughlin 2012
Comanche 100 loquentes in Oclahoma Robinson et Armagost 1990
Timbisha, Panamint 20 loquentes in California et Nivata Dayley 1989
Numica Meridiana lingua Fluminis Colorati: Uta, Paiute meridiana, Chemehuevi 920 loquentes omnium dialectorum, in Colorato, Nivata, California, Uta, Arizona Givón 2011; Press 1979; Sapir 1992
Kawaiisu 5 loquentes in California Zigmond, Booth, et Munro 1991
Regio linguistica Californiana Serran Serrano, Kitanemuk (†) Nulli loquentes nati, sed discipuli Serrano in California Meridiana Hill 1967
Cupan Cahuilla, Cupeño 35 loquentes Cahuillae, nulli loquentes nati Cupeño Hill 2005; Seiler 1977
Luiseño-Juaneño 5 loquentes in California Meridiana Kroeber et Grace 1960
Tongva (Gabrielino-Fernandeño) (†) (exstincta ex ca. 1900) Insula Sanctae Catalinae, California Meridiana, conatus ad linguam redintegrandam Munro et al. 2008
Hopi Hopi 6,800 loquentes in Arizona boreorientali Hopi Dictionary Project 1998; Jeanne 1978
Tübatulabal Tübatulabal 5 loquentes in Kern Comitatu, California Voegelin 1935, Voegelin 1958
Uto-Aztecana Meridiana
(fortasse grex arealis)
Tepiman
Pimic O'odham (Pima-Papago) 14,000 loquentes in Arizona meridiana, et Sonora septentrionali Mexici Zepeda 1983
Pima Bajo (O'ob No'ok) 650 loquentes in Chihuahua et Sonora Mexici Estrada-Fernández 1998
Tepehuana Tepehuana septentrionalis 6,200 loquentes in Chihuahua Mexici Bascom 1982
Tepehuana meridiana 10,600 loquentes in Durango meridiorientali Willett 1991
Tepecano (†) Exstincta ex 1972, olim in usu in Jalisco septentrionali Mason 1916
Tarahumarana Tarahumara (nonnullae varietates) 45,500 loquentes omnium varietatum, omnibus in Chihuahua Caballero 2008
Upriver Guarijio, Downriver Guarijio 2,840 loquentes in Chihuahua et Sonora Miller 1996
Tubar (†) In usu in Sinaloa et Sonora Lionnet 1978
Cahita Yaqui 11,800 in Sonora et Arizona Dedricket Casad 1999
Mayo 33,000 in Sinaloa et Sonora Freeze 1989
Opatan Opata (†) Exstincta ex circa 1930. Olim in usu in Sonora. Shaul 2001
Eudeve (†) Exstincta ex 1940; olim in usu in Sonora Lionnet 1986
Corachol Cora 13 600 loquentes in Nayarit septentrionali Casad 1984
Huichol 17 800 loquentes in Nayarit et Jalisco Iturrioz Leza, Ramírez de la Cruz, et al. 2001
Aztecana Pochutec (†) exstinct ex annis 1970; olim in usu in litore Oaxacano Boas 1917
Nahuana nuclearis Pipil 20-40 loquentes Salvatore Campbell 1985
Nahuatl 1 500 000 loquentes in Medio Mexico Langacker 1979; Launey 1986

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Warning icon.svg Fons nominis Latini desideratus (addito fonte, hanc formulam remove)
  2. Caballero 2011.
  3. Ethnologue (2014). "Summary by language family". SIL International .

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

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  • Caballero, G. 2011. Behind the Mexican Mountains: Recent Developments and New Directions in Research on Uto‐Aztecan Languages.Language and Linguistics Compass 5(7):485–504. doi:10.1111/j.1749-818x.2011.00287.x.
  • Campbell, Lyle. 1997.American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America. Oxoniae: Oxford University Press.
  • Campbell, Lyle. 2003. What drives linguistic diversification and language spread? In Examining the farming/language dispersal hypothesis, ed. Peter Bellwood et Colin Renfrew, 49–63 Cantabrigiae: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.
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  • Cortina-Borja, M., J. Stuart-Smith, et L. Valiñas-Coalla. 2002. Multivariate classification methods for lexical and phonological dissimilarities and their application to the Uto-Aztecan family. Journal of Quantitative Linguistics 9(2):97–124. doi:10.1076/jqul.9.2.97.8485.
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  • Goddard, Ives. 1996. Introducion. Handbook of North American Indians, vol. 17, ed. Ives Goddard, 1–16. Vasingtoniae: Smithsonian Institutiononiae.
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  • Hill, Jane H. 2001. Proto-Uto-Aztecan. American Anthropologist New Series, 103(4). doi:10.1525/aa.2001.103.4.913.
  • Hill, Jane H. 2010. New evidence for a Mesoamerican homeland for Proto-Uto-Aztecan. PNAS 107(11):E33. doi:10.1073/pnas.0914473107. PDF.
  • Hill, J. H. 2011. Subgrouping in Uto-Aztecan. Language Dynamics and Change 1(2):241–278.
  • Iannucci, David. 1972. Numic historical phonology. Dissertatio PhD, Cornell University.
  • Kaufman, Terrence. 2001. Nawa linguistic prehistory. Mesoamerican Language Documentation Project. Textus.
  • Kaufman, Terrence, cum Lyle Campbell. 1981. Comparative Uto-Aztecan Phonology. Manuscriptum.
  • Kemp, González-Oliver, Malhi, Monroe, Schroeder, McDonough, Rhett, Resendéz, Peñalosa-Espinoza, Buentello-Malo, Gorodetsky, et Smith. 2010. Evaluating the farming/language dispersal hypothesis with genetic variation exhibited by populations in the Southwest and Mesoamerica. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107(15):6759–6764. doi:10.1073/pnas.0905753107. PDF.
  • Kroeber, Alfred Louis. 1907. Shoshonean dialects of California. University of California Press. Google Books.
  • Kroeber, Alfred Louis. 1934. Uto-Aztecan Languages of Mexico. Vol. 8. University of California Press.
  • Langacker, Ronald W. 1970. The Vowels of Proto Uto-Aztecan. International Journal of American Linguistics 36(3):169-180. doi:10.1086/465108.
  • Langacker, R. W. 1976. Non-distinct arguments in Uto-Aztecan. Berkeleiae: University of California Press.
  • Langacker, R. W. 1977. An overview of Uto-Aztecan grammar. Summer Institute of Linguistics.
  • Manaster Ramer, Alexis. 1992. A Northern Uto-Aztecan Sound Law: *-c- → -y-¹. International Journal of American Linguistics 58(3):251–268. JSTOR 3519784.
  • Merrill, William L. 2012. The Historical Linguistics of Uto-Aztecan Agriculture. Anthropological Linguistics 54(3):203–260. doi:10.1353/anl.2012.0017.
  • Merrill, William L. 2013. The genetic unity of southern Uto-Aztecan. anguage Dynamics and Change 3:68–104.
  • Merrill, William L., Robert J. Hard, Jonathan B. Mabry, Adams Fritz, et Rony MacWilliams. 2010. Reply to Hill and Brown: Maize and Uto-Aztecan cultural history. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107(11):E35-E36. PDF. doi:10.1073/pnas.1000923107.
  • Miller, Wick R. 1983. A note on extinct languages of northwest Mexico of supposed Uto-Aztecan affiliation. International Journal of American Linguistics 49:328–333. doi:10.1086/465793.
  • Miller, Wick R. 1983. Uto-Aztecan languages. In Handbook of North American Indians, vol 10, ed. Alfonso Ortiz, 113–124. Vasingtoniae: Smithsonian Institution.
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  • Miller, Wick R. 1986. Numic Languages. Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 11, Great Basin, ed. Warren L. d’Azevedo, 98–106. Vasingtoniae: Smithsonian Institution.
  • Mithun, Marianne. 1999. The languages of Native America. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press.
  • Shaul, D. L. 2014. A Prehistory of Western North America: The Impact of Uto-Aztecan Languages. University of New Mexico Press.
  • Steele, Susan. 1979. An assessment for historical and comparative linguistics. In The Languages of Native America: Historical and Comparative Assessment, ed Lyle Campbell et Marianne Mithun, 444–544. Austiniae Texiae: University of Texas Press.
  • Sapir, Edward. 1913. Southern Paiute and Nahuatl, a study in Uto-Aztekan. Journal de la Société des Américanistes 10(2):379–425. doi:10.3406/jsa.1913.2866.
  • Shaul, David L. 2014. A Prehistory of Western North America: The Impact of Uto-Aztecan Languages. University of New Mexico Press.
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  • Whorf, Benjamin L. 1935. The Comparative Linguistics of Uto-Aztecan. American Anthropologist 37(4):600–608. doi:10.1525/aa.1935.37.4.02a00050.

Opera de linguis singulis[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Boas, Franz. 1917. El dialecto mexicano de Pochutla, Oaxaca. International Journal of American Linguistics 1(1):9–44. Novi Eboraci: Douglas C. McMurtrie. doi:10.1086/463709. OCLC 56221629.
  • Hopi Dictionary Project. 1998. Hopi Dictionary: Hopìikwa Lavàytutuveni: A Hopi–English Dictionary of the Third Mesa Dialect With an English–Hopi Finder List and a Sketch of Hopi Grammar. Tucsoniae: University of Arizona Press.
  • Campbell, Lyle. 1985. The Pipil Language of El Salvador. Mouton Grammar Library, 1. Berolini: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-010344-1. OCLC 13433705. PHP.
  • Dayley, Jon P. 1989. Tümpisa (Panamint) Shoshone Grammar. University of California Publications in Linguistics 115. Berkeleiae: University of California Press.
  • Givón, Talmy. 2011. Ute Reference Grammar. Culture and Language Use, 3. Amstelodami: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
  • Jeanne, LaVerne Masayesva. 1978. Aspects of Hopi grammar. Dissertatio, MIT.
  • Voegelin, Charles F. 1935. Tübatulabal Grammar. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 34:55–190.
  • Voegelin, Charles F. 1958. Working Dictionary of Tübatulabal. International Journal of American Linguistics 24(3):221–228. doi:10.1086/464459.
  • Wistrand, Lila, et James Armagost. 1990. Comanche dictionary and grammar. Publications in linguistics, 92. Dallasiae Texiae: The Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas at Arlington.
  • Lamb, Sydney M. 1958. A Grammar of Mono. Dissertatio PhD, Universitas Californiensis Berkeleiae. PDF.
  • Zigmond, Maurice L., Curtis G. Booth, et Pamela Munro. 1991. Kawaiisu, A Grammar and Dictionary with Texts. University of California Publications in Linguistics, ed. Pamela Munro, vol. 119. Berkeleiae Californiae University of California Press.
  • Nichols, Michael. 1973. Northern Paiute historical grammar. Dissertatio, Universitas Californiensis Berkeleiae.
  • McLaughlin, John E. 2012. Shoshoni Grammar. Languages of the World/Meterials 488. Monaci: LINCOM Europa
  • Press, Margaret L. 1979. Chemehuevi: A Grammar and Lexicon. University of California Publications in Linguistics, 92. Berkeleiae: University of California Press.
  • Sapir, Edward. (1930) 1992. Southern Paiute, a Shoshonean Language. The Collected Works of Edward Sapir, X, Southern Paiute and Ute Linguistics and Ethnography, ed. William Bright. Berolini: Mouton deGruyter.
  • Seiler, Hans-Jakob. 1977. Cahuilla Grammar. Banning Californiae: Malki Museum Press.
  • Hill, Kenneth C. 1967. A Grammar of the Serrano Language. Dissertatio PhD, Universitas Californiensis Angelopoli.
  • Hill, Jane H. 2005 A Grammar of Cupeño. University of California Publications in Linguistics. Berkeleiae:University of California Press.
  • Caballero, Gabriela. 2008. Choguita Rarámuri (Tarahumara) Phonology and Morphology. Dissertatio PhD, University of California at Berkeley. PDF.
  • Kroeber, Alfred L., et George William Grace. 1960. The Sparkman Grammar of Luiseño. University of California Publications in Linguistics, 16. Berkeleiae: The University of California Press.
  • Zepeda, Ofelia. 1983. A Tohono O'odham Grammar. Tucson, Arizona: The University of Arizona Press.
  • Willett, T. 1991. A reference grammar of southeastern Tepehuan. Summer Institute of Linguistics and University of Texas at Arlington.http://www-01.sil.org/acpub/repository/29375.pdf PDF.]
  • Mason, J. Alden. 1916. Tepecano, A Piman language of western Mexico. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 25:309–416. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1916.tb55171.x.
  • Miller, Wick R. 1996. La lengua guarijio: gramatica, vocabulario y textos. Mexicopoli: Instituto de Investigaciones Antropologicas.
  • Bascom, Burton W. 1982. Northern Tepehuan. In Uto-Aztecan Grammatical Sketches, ed. Ronald W. Langacker, 267–393. Studies in Uto-Aztecan Grammar, 3. Dallasiae Texiae: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington
  • Lionnet, Andrés. 1978. El idioma tubar y los tubares: Segun documentos ineditos de C. S. Lumholtz y C. V. Hartman. Mexicopoli: Universidad Iberoamericana.
  • Casad, Eugene H. 1984. Cora. Studies in Uto-Aztecan grammar 4: Southern Uto-Aztecan grammatical sketches, ed. Ronald W. Langacker, 153–149. Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics, 56. Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington.
  • Iturrioz Leza, José Luis, Julio Ramírez de la Cruz, et al. 2001 Gramática Didáctica del Huichol: Vol. I. Estructura Fonológica y Sistema de Escritura. Departamento de Estudios en Lenguas Indígenas–Universidad de Guadalajara, Secretaria de Educación Pública.
  • Dedrick, John, et Eugene H. Casad. 1999. Sonora Yaqui Language Structures. Tucsoniae Arizonae: University of Arizona Press. ISBN 978-0-8165-1981-1. Catalogus.
  • Freeze, Ray A. 1989. Mayo de Los Capomos, Sinaloa. Archivo de Lenguas Indígenas del Estado de Oaxaca, 14.14.166. Mexicopoli: Instituto de Investigación e Integración Social del Estado de Oaxaca.
  • Lionnet, Andrés. 1986. Un idioma extinto de sonora: El eudeve. Mexicopolis: UNAM. ISBN 968-837-915-8. Google Books.
  • Estrada-Fernández, Zarina. 1998. Pima bajo de Yepachi, Chihuahua. Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. Colegio de México.
  • Munro, Pamela, et al. 2008. Yaara' Shiraaw'ax 'Eyooshiraaw'a: Now You're Speaking Our Language: Gabrielino/Tongva/Fernandeño. Lulu.com.
  • Launey, Michel. 1986. Categories et operations dans la grammaire Nahuatl. Dissertatio PhD, Lutetiae IV. Textus.
  • Langacker, Ronald W., ed. 1979. Modern Aztec Grammatical Sketches. Studies in Uto-Aztecan Grammar,2. Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics, 56. Dallasii: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington. ISBN 0-88312-072-0.
  • Shaul, D. L. 2001. The Opatan Languages, Plus Jova. Festschrift. INAH.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]