The Federalist

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Pagina titularis primae collectionis The Federalist (1788).
Alexander Hamilton, plurimarum chartarum The Federalist appellatarum auctor.
Iacobus Madison, maximus adiutor Hamiltonianus, deinde Praeses Civitatum Foederatarum et Pater Constitutionis.

The Federalist (deinde The Federalist Papers appellata, Latine fortasse 'Chartae Foederalistae') est congeries ex octoginta quinque commentariis et libellis ab Alexandro Hamilton, Iacobo Madison, et Ioanne Jay scriptis ad Constitutionem Civitatum Foederatarum sanciendam promovendam. Septuaginta septem res in diariis The Independent Journal et The New York Packet seriatim inter Octobrem 1787 et Augustum 1788 divulgatae sunt. Collectio harum rerum et octo aliarum, The Federalist; or, The New Constitution appellata, binis voluminibus anno 1788 a J. et A. McLean patefacta sunt.[1] Primus congeriei inscriptio fuit The Federalist; inscriptio The Federalist Papers saeculo vicensimo orta est.

Auctores harum commentariorum, quamquam praecipue suffragia movere ad constitutionem propositam sanciendam volebant, in Federalist No. 1 hanc disceptationem latioribus vocabulis civilibus aperte posuerunt:

Dicitur crebro incolis huius patriae, per mores et exemplum, ad rem magni momenti decernendam reservari videri, num societates hominum rem publicam bonam instituere per cogitationem et optionem revera possint, an non, aut num, ex relatione ad eorum constitutiones politicas, de casu et vi dependere semper destinentur.[2][3]

Inter commentarios The Federalist sunt multi loci celeberrimi. Federalist No. 10, in quo Madison de modo regiminis partium maioritatis prohibendi disputat, rempublicam magnam et commercialem suadens, commentarius maximi momenti ex sententia philosophica plerumque habetur; completur a Federalist No. 14, in quo Madison latentem Civitatum Foederatarum potentiam aestimat, quam reipublicae latae idoneam declarat, et argumentum per memorabilem animi creatricis constitutionalis et civilis Conventus Foederalis defensionem concludit.[4] In Federalist No. 84, Hamilton arguit emendare Constitutionem per rogationem iurum additam non necessarium esse, quia variae condiciones in Constitutione proposita quae libertatem protegant ad rogationem iurum efficiunt. Federalist No. 78, etiam ab Hamilton scriptum, fundamenta iacit doctrinae recognitionis iudicialis legum foederalium et rerum gestarum exscutivarum. Federalist No. 70 argumenta Hamiltoniana de principali unius hominis administratore praebet. In Federalist No. 39, Madison expositionem clarissimam offert notionis quae Federalismus appellatur. In Federalist No. 51, ille argumenta de coercitionibus et aequilibriis comparat in commentario saepe allato ob eius excusationem rei publicae ut "maxima ex omnibus considerationibus humanitatis."[5]

Secundum Ricardum B. Morris historicum Americanum, hi commentarii sunt "incomparabilis constitutionis expositio, locus classicus in scientia politica latitudinem et profunditatem attingens ab exitu ullius scriptoris Americani posterii invictus."[6][7]

Index plenus[recensere | fontem recensere]

Colores qui series expressunt cum auctore commentarii congruunt.

# Tempus Inscriptio Inscriptio Latine conversa Auctor
1 27 Octobris 1787 General Introduction Introductio generalis Alexander Hamilton
2 31 Octobris 1787 Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence De periculis ex vi et gratia aliena Ioannes Jay
3 3 Novembris 1787 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence Eadem res continuata: de periculis ex vi et gratia aliena Ioannes Jay
4 7 Novembris 1787 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence Eadem res continuata: de periculis ex vi et gratia aliena Ioannes Jay
5 10 Novembris 1787 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence Eadem res continuata: de periculis ex vi et gratia aliena Ioannes Jay
6 14 Novembris 1787 Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States De periculis ex discordia inter civitates Alexander Hamilton
7 15 Novembris 1787 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States Eadem res continuata: de periculis ex discordia inter civitates Alexander Hamilton
8 20 Novembris 1787 The Consequences of Hostilities Between the States Exitus hostilium inter civitates Alexander Hamilton
9 21 Novembris 1787 The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection Unio cautio partium et rebellionis domesticae Alexander Hamilton
10 22 Novembris 1787 The Same Subject Continued: The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection Eadem res continuata: Unio cautio partium et rebellionis domesticae Iacobus Madison
11 24 Novembris 1787 The Utility of the Union in Respect to Commercial Relations and a Navy Utilitas Unionis de coniunctionibus commercialibus et classi Alexander Hamilton
12 27 Novembris 1787 The Utility of the Union In Respect to Revenue Utilitas Unionis de vectigalibus Alexander Hamilton
13 28 Novembris 1787 Advantage of the Union in Respect to Economy in Government Alexander Hamilton
14 30 Novembris 1787 Objections to the Proposed Constitution From Extent of Territory Answered Iacobus Madison
15 1 Decembris 1787 The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union Alexander Hamilton
16 4 Decembris 1787 The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union Alexander Hamilton
17 5 Decembris 1787 The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union Alexander Hamilton
18 7 Decembris 1787 The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union Iacobus Madison
19 8 Decembris 1787 The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union Iacobus Madison
20 11 Decembris 1787 The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union Iacobus Madison
21 12 Decembris 1787 Other Defects of the Present Confederation Alia praesentis confoederationis vitia Alexander Hamilton
22 14 Decembris 1787 The Same Subject Continued: Other Defects of the Present Confederation Eadem res continuata: alia praesentis confoederationis vitia Alexander Hamilton
23 18 Decembris 1787 The Necessity of a Government as Energetic as the One Proposed to the Preservation of the Union Alexander Hamilton
24 19 Decembris 1787 The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered Alexander Hamilton
25 21 Decembris 1787 The Same Subject Continued: The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered Alexander Hamilton
26 22 Decembris 1787 The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered Alexander Hamilton
27 25 Decembris 1787 The Same Subject Continued: The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered Alexander Hamilton
28 26 Decembris 1787 The Same Subject Continued: The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered Alexander Hamilton
29 9 Ianuarii 1788 Concerning the Militia De militia Alexander Hamilton
30 28 Decembris 1787 Concerning the General Power of Taxation De generali vectigalium imponendorum potestas Alexander Hamilton
31 1 Ianuarii 1788 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation Eadem res continuata: de generali vectigalium imponendorum potestas Alexander Hamilton
32 2 Ianuarii 1788 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation Eadem res continuata: de generali vectigalium imponendorum potestas Alexander Hamilton
33 2 Ianuarii 1788 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation Eadem res continuata: de generali vectigalium imponendorum potestas Alexander Hamilton
34 5 Ianuarii 1788 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation Eadem res continuata: de generali vectigalium imponendorum potestas Alexander Hamilton
35 5 Ianuarii 1788 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation Eadem res continuata: de generali vectigalium imponendorum potestas Alexander Hamilton
36 8 Ianuarii 1788 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation Eadem res continuata: de generali vectigalium imponendorum potestas Alexander Hamilton
37 11 Ianuarii 1788 Concerning the Difficulties of the Convention in Devising a Proper Form of Government Iacobus Madison
38 12 Ianuarii 1788 The Same Subject Continued, and the Incoherence of the Objections to the New Plan Exposed Iacobus Madison
39 18 Ianuarii 1788 The Conformity of the Plan to Republican Principles Iacobus Madison
40 18 Ianuarii 1788 The Powers of the Convention to Form a Mixed Government Examined and Sustained Iacobus Madison
41 19 Ianuarii 1788 General View of the Powers Conferred by the Constitution Iacobus Madison
42 22 Ianuarii 1788 The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered Iacobus Madison
43 23 Ianuarii 1788 The Same Subject Continued: The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered Iacobus Madison
44 25 Ianuarii 1788 Restrictions on the Authority of the Several States Iacobus Madison
45 26 Ianuarii 1788 The Alleged Danger From the Powers of the Union to the State Governments Considered Iacobus Madison
46 29 Ianuarii 1788 The Influence of the State and Federal Governments Compared Iacobus Madison
47 30 Ianuarii 1788 The Particular Structure of the New Government and the Distribution of Power Among Its Different Parts Iacobus Madison
48 1 Februarii 1788 These Departments Should Not Be So Far Separated as to Have No Constitutional Control Over Each Other Iacobus Madison
49 2 Februarii 1788 Method of Guarding Against the Encroachments of Any One Department of Government Iacobus Madison[8]
50 5 Februarii 1788 Periodic Appeals to the People Considered Iacobus Madison[8]
51 6 Februarii 1788 The Structure of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and Balances Between the Different Departments Iacobus Madison[8]
52 8 Februarii 1788 The House of Representatives Camera Repraesentantium Iacobus Madison[8]
53 9 Februarii 1788 The Same Subject Continued: The House of Representatives Eadem res continuata: Camera Repraesentantium Iacobus Madison[8]
54 12 Februarii 1788 The Apportionment of Members among the States Divisio legatorum inter civitates Iacobus Madison[8]
55 13 Februarii 1788 The Total Number of the House of Representatives Totus numerus Camerae Repraesentantium Iacobus Madison[8]
56 16 Februarii 1788 The Same Subject Continued: The Total Number of the House of Representatives Eadem res continuata: totus numerus Camerae Repraesentantium Iacobus Madison[8]
57 19 Februari 1788 The Alleged Tendency of the New Plan to Elevate the Few at the Expense of the Many Iacobus Madison[8]
58 20 Februarii 1788 Objection That The Number of Members Will Not Be Augmented as the Progress of Population Demands Considered Iacobus Madison[8]
59 22 Februarii 1788 Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members De potestate Congressus ad electionem legatorum ordinandam Alexander Hamilton
60 23 Februarii 1788 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members Eadem res continuata: de potestate Congressus ad electionem legatorum ordinandam Alexander Hamilton
61 26 Februarii 1788 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members Eadem res continuata: de potestate Congressus ad electionem legatorum ordinandam Alexander Hamilton
62 27 Februarii 1788 The Senate Senatus Iacobus Madison[8]
63 1 Martii 1788 The Senate Continued Senatus Continuatus Iacobus Madison[8]
64 5 Martii 1788 The Powers of the Senate Potestates Senatus Ioannes Jay
65 7 Martii 1788 The Powers of the Senate Continued Potestates Senatus continuatae Alexander Hamilton
66 8 Martii 1788 Objections to the Power of the Senate To Set as a Court for Impeachments Further Considered Alexander Hamilton
67 11 Martii 1788 The Executive Department Alexander Hamilton
68 12 Martii 1788 The Mode of Electing the President Alexander Hamilton
69 14 Martii 1788 The Real Character of the Executive Verum Exsecutivi Ingenium Alexander Hamilton
70 15 Martii 1788 The Executive Department Further Considered Alexander Hamilton
71 18 Martii 1788 The Duration in Office of the Executive Alexander Hamilton
72 19 Martii 1788 The Same Subject Continued, and Re-Eligibility of the Executive Considered Alexander Hamilton
73 21 Martii 1788 The Provision For The Support of the Executive, and the Veto Power Alexander Hamilton
74 25 Martii 1788 The Command of the Military and Naval Forces, and the Pardoning Power of the Executive Alexander Hamilton
75 26 Martii 1788 Exsecutivi Potestas Foederum Faciendorum Alexander Hamilton
76 1 Aprilis 1788 The Appointing Power of the Executive Alexander Hamilton
77 2 Aprilis 1788 The Appointing Power Continued and Other Powers of the Executive Considered Alexander Hamilton
78 28 Maii 1788 (book)
14 Iunii 1788 (diarium)
The Judiciary Department Alexander Hamilton
79 28 Maii 1788 (book)
18 Iunii 1788 (diarium)
The Judiciary Continued Alexander Hamilton
80 21 Iunii 1788 Potestates Iudicum Alexander Hamilton
81 25 Iunii et
28 Iunii 1788
The Judiciary Continued, and the Distribution of the Judicial Authority Alexander Hamilton
82 2 Iulii 1788 The Judiciary Continued Alexander Hamilton
83 5 Iuli 1788,
9 Iulii 1788, et
12 Iulii 1788
The Judiciary Continued in Relation to Trial by Jury Alexander Hamilton
84 16 Iulii 1788,
26 Iulii 1788, et
9 Augusti 1788
Certain General and Miscellaneous Objections to the Constitution Considered and Answered Alexander Hamilton
85 13 Augusti 1788 et
16 Augusti 1788
Concluding Remarks Dicta ultima Alexander Hamilton

Nexus interni

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Kenneth T. Jackson, The Encyclopedia of New York City (The New York Historical Society; Yale University Press, 1995), 194.
  2. Anglice "It has been frequently remarked, that it seems to have been reserved to the people of this country, by their conduct and example, to decide the important question, whether societies of men are really capable or not, of establishing good government from reflection and choice, or whether they are forever destined to depend, for their political constitutions, on accident and force."
  3. The Federalist Papers. Toronto: Bantam Books. 1982 ,
  4. Wills, x.
  5. Anglice: "the greatest of all reflections on human nature."
  6. Anglice: "incomparable exposition of the Constitution, a classic in political science unsurpassed in both breadth and depth by the product of any later American writer."
  7. Richard B. Morris, The Forging of the Union: 1781-1789 (1987) p. 309.
  8. 8.00 8.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08 8.09 8.10 8.11 One of twelve "disputed papers" to which both Madison and Hamilton laid claim. Modern scholarly consensus leans towards Madison as the author of all twelve, and he is so credited in this table. See Federalist Papers: Disputed essays. See Adair, 93: "The disputed numbers of The Federalist claimed by both Hamilton and Madison are Numbers 49 through 58 and Numbers 62 and 63.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Adair, Douglass. 1974. Fame and the Founding Fathers. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund.
  • Furtwangler, Albert. 1984.The Authority of Publius: A Reading of the Federalist Papers. Ithacae Novi Eboraci: Cornell University Press.
  • Mosteller, Frederick, et David L. Wallace. 1964. Inference and Disputed Authorship: The Federalist. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusettae.
  • Wills, Gary. 1981. Explaining America: The Federalist. Garden City Novae Caesareae.

Bibliographia addita[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Dietze, Gottfried. 1960. The Federalist: A Classic on Federalism and Free Government. Baltimorae: The Johns Hopkins Press.
  • Epstein, David F. 1984. The Political Theory of the Federalist. Sicagi: University of Chicago Press.
  • Gray, Leslie, et Wynell Burroughs. 1987. Teaching With Documents: Ratification of the Constitution. Social Education 51:322-324.
  • Kesler, Charles R. 1987. Saving the Revolution: The Federalist Papers and the American Founding. Novi Eboraci.
  • Meyerson, Michael I. 2008. Liberty's Blueprint: How Madison and Hamilton Wrote the Federalist Papers, Defined the Constitution, and Made Democracy Safe for the World. Novi Eboraci: Basic Books.
  • Patrick, John J., et Clair W. Keller. 1987. Lessons on the Federalist Papers: Supplements to High School Courses in American History, Government and Civics. Bloomington Indianae: Organization of American Historians in association with ERIC/ChESS.
  • Schechter, Stephen L. 1984. Teaching about American Federal Democracy. Philadelphiae: Center for the Study of Federalism at Temple University.
  • Scott, Kyle. 2013. The Federalist Papers: A Reader’s Guide. Novi Eboraci: Bloomsbury Press.
  • Sunstein, Cass R. 2009. The Enlarged Republic—Then and Now. New York Review of Books, 26 Martii, vol.56(5):45. Commentarius.
  • Webster, Mary E. 1999. The Federalist Papers. In Modern Language Indexed for Today's Political Issues. Bellevue Vasintoniae: Merril Press.
  • White, Morton. 1987. Philosophy, The Federalist, and the Constitution. Novi Eboraci.
  • Zebra Edition. 2007. The Federalist Papers: (Or, How Government is Supposed to Work) . . . Edited for Readability. Oakesdale Vasingtoniae: Lucky Zebra Press.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Wikiquote-logo.svg Vicicitatio habet citationes quae ad The Federalist spectant.
Wikisource-logo.svg Vide The Federalist apud Vicifontem.