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'''Géza Vermes''', stylo [[Hungarice|Hungarico]] ''Vermes Géza'' ([{{IPA|ˈvɛrmɛʃ ˈɡeːzɒ}}], natus est in [[Makó]] [[Hungaria]]e die [[22 Iunii]] [[1924]]; mortuus est die [[8 Maii]] [[2013]]. E familia Iudaica ortus ad religionem Catholicam cum parentibus annum agens septimum adhaesivit. In Hungaria eruditus est usque ad annum 1942 clericusque Catholicus factus est. Inde, patre et matre in [[Holocaustum|Holocausto]] necatis, [[Belgica]]m, deinde [[Anglia]]m petivit. Gradum doctoris meruit [[Universitas Catholica Lovaniensis|Universitatis Catholicae Lovaniensis]] ubi ille primus dissertationem de [[Manuscripta Maris Mortui|manuscriptis Maris Mortui]], eo tempore nuper repertis et aegre accessibilibus, conscripsit. Apud [[Universitas Novocastellensis|Novocastellenses]] docuit et mox [[Universitas Oxoniensis|Oxonienses]], ubi socius fuit [[Collegium Wolfson (Oxonia)|collegii Wolfson]]. Notus est propter opera de origine [[Religio Christiana|Christianitatis]], de vita [[Iesus Christus|Iesu Christi]], et de manuscriptis Maris Mortui, quorum versionem [[Anglice|Anglicam]] anno [[1961]] primum divulgavit. Ad religionem proavorum Iudaicam anno circiter 1957 revenit.
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'''Géza Vermes''', stylo [[Hungarice|Hungarico]] ''Vermes Géza'' ([{{IPA|ˈɡeːzɒ ˈvɛrmɛʃ}}], natus est in [[Makó]] [[Hungaria]]e die [[22 Iunii]] [[1924]]; mortuus est die [[8 Maii]] [[2013]]. E familia Iudaica ortus ad religionem Catholicam cum parentibus annum agens septimum adhaesivit. In Hungaria eruditus est usque ad annum 1942. Inde, patre et matre in [[Holocaustum|Holocausto]] necatis, [[Belgica]]m, deinde [[Anglia]]m petivit. Gradum doctoris meruit [[Universitas Catholica Lovaniensis|Universitatis Catholicae Lovaniensis]]: ille primus dissertationem de [[Manuscripta Maris Mortui|manuscriptis Maris Mortui]], eo tempore nuper repertis et aegre accessibilibus, conscripsit. Apud [[Universitas Novocastellensis|Novocastellenses]] docuit et mox [[Universitas Oxoniensis|Oxonienses]], ubi fuit [[Jewish]] [[Hungarian people|Hungarian]] origin--one who also served as a Catholic [[priest]] in his youth--and writer on religious history, particularly [[Judaism|Jewish]] and [[Christian]]. He was a noted authority on the [[Dead Sea Scrolls]] and ancient works in [[Aramaic]] such as the Targums, and on the life and religion of [[Jesus]]. He was one of the most important voices in contemporary Jesus research,<ref name = "TM1998 1">Theissen, Gerd and Annette Merz. The historical Jesus: a comprehensive guide. Fortress Press. 1998. translated from German (1996 edition). Chapter 1. Quest of the historical Jesus. p. 1-16</ref> and he has been described as the greatest Jesus scholar of his time.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://education.guardian.co.uk/academicexperts/story/0,,2266141,00.html|title=Geza Vermes: Questions arising|first=John|last=Crace|date=March 18, 2008|accessdate=2008-03-19|publisher=[[The Guardian]]}}; [http://www.tcpc.org/review/review.cfm?review_id=10 G. Richard Wheatcroft review of The Authentic Gospel of Jesus].</ref> Vermes' written work on Jesus focuses principally on Jesus the [[Jew]], as seen in the broader context of the narrative scope of Jewish [[history]] and [[theology]], while questioning the basis of some [[Christianity|Christian teachings]] on Jesus.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.americamagazine.org/content/article.cfm?article_id=10691|title=No Evidence? ''The Resurrection'' by Geza Vermes|first=Daniel J.|last=Harrington|date=March 24, 2008|accessdate=2008-12-19|publisher=[[America (magazine)|America]]}}</ref>
 
== Biography ==
Vermes was born in , in 1924 to parents of Jewish descent, schoolteacher Terezia (Riesz) and liberal journalist Emo Vermes<ref>http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/17/world/europe/geza-vermes-dead-sea-scrolls-scholar-dies-at-88.html?_r=0</ref><ref>[http://books.google.ca/books?id=e7rYAAAAMAAJ&q=%22Mako,+Hungary,+June+22,+1924%22&dq=%22Mako,+Hungary,+June+22,+1924%22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=9eyKUb-eJMmsrgGW4oHQCQ&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAQ]</ref>, (His family, however, had not practiced Judaism since the early 19th century<ref>http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/17/world/europe/geza-vermes-dead-sea-scrolls-scholar-dies-at-88.html?_r=0</ref>.)
All three were baptised as [[Roman Catholic]]s when he was seven. His mother and journalist father died in the [[Holocaust]].
 
Vermes attended a Catholic seminary. When he was eligible for college, in 1942, Jews were not accepted into Hungarian universities<ref>http://forward.com/articles/176752/geza-vermes-hungarian-bible-scholar-who-returned-t/#ixzz2TSHw5Nz0</ref>.
 
After the [[Second World War]], he became a Roman Catholic priest, but was not admitted into the Jesuit or Dominican orders because of his Jewish ancestry. Vermes was accepted into the [[Order of the Fathers of Notre-Dame de Sion]]<ref>http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/17/world/europe/geza-vermes-dead-sea-scrolls-scholar-dies-at-88.html?_r=0</ref>, a French/Belgian order founded by Jewish converts<ref>http://www.economist.com/news/obituary/21578017-geza-vermes-jew-ex-priest-and-translator-dead-sea-scrolls-died-may-8th-aged Geza Vermes: Geza Vermes, a Jew, ex-priest and translator of the Dead Sea Scrolls, died on May 8th aged 88</ref> which prayed for Jews.<ref>http://forward.com/articles/176752/geza-vermes-hungarian-bible-scholar-who-returned-t/#ixzz2TSIZlL2A</ref>
 
He studied first in [[Budapest]] and then at the [[College St Albert]] and the [[Catholic University of Leuven]] in [[Belgium]], where he read [[Oriental]] history and languages. In 1953 obtained a doctorate in theology with the first dissertation written on the [[Dead Sea Scrolls]] and its historical framework<ref>http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/17/world/europe/geza-vermes-dead-sea-scrolls-scholar-dies-at-88.html?_r=0</ref>.
 
After researching the scrolls in Paris for a few years, he left the Catholic Church in 1957, and reasserting his Jewish identity, came to [[UK|Britain]] and took up a teaching post at the [[Newcastle University|University of Newcastle upon Tyne]]. He married [[Pamela Hobson Curle]], a scholar and poet who was already married<ref>http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/17/world/europe/geza-vermes-dead-sea-scrolls-scholar-dies-at-88.html?_r=0</ref>.<ref>[http://www.stanford.edu/group/auden/cgi-bin/auden/branches.php?ged=auden-bicknell.ged&surn=HOBSON W.H. Auden links in (Noreen) Pamela Hobson's Family Tree]
Nicholas Jenkins "Family ghosts" geneology database, Department of English, Stanford University</ref> in 1958. In 1965 he joined the Faculty of Oriental Studies at [[Oxford University]], rising to become the first professor of [[Jewish Studies]] before his retirement in 1991. In 1970 he became a member of the [[Liberal Judaism|Liberal Jewish Synagogue of London]],<ref>Géza Vermès, ''[http://books.google.com.au/books?id=rH69p6a9bcEC&pg=PA170 Providential Accidents: An autobiography]'',, p. 170.</ref> "but insisted he had not converted, just “grew out of” Christianity".<ref>http://www.economist.com/news/obituary/21578017-geza-vermes-jew-ex-priest-and-translator-dead-sea-scrolls-died-may-8th-aged Geza Vermes: Geza Vermes, a Jew, ex-priest and translator of the Dead Sea Scrolls, died on May 8th aged 88</ref> After the death of his first wife in 1993, he married Margaret Unarska in 1996 and adopted her son, Ian Vermes.
 
Vermes died on 8 May 2013 after a recurrence of cancer.<ref>http://paleojudaica.blogspot.ca/2013_05_05_archive.html</ref>
 
== Academic career ==
Vermes was one of the first scholars to examine the Dead Sea Scrolls after their discovery in 1947, and is the author of the standard translation into [[English language|English]] of the Dead Sea Scrolls: <ref>, re-issued in London by Penguin Classics, as ''The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English'', 2004, ISBN 0-14-044952-3.</ref> He is one of the leading scholars in the field of the study of the historical Jesus (see Selected Publications, below) and together with Fergus Millar and Martin Goodman, Vermes was responsible for substantially revising [[Emil Schurer]]'s three-volume work, ''The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ'',<ref>Edinburgh, T. & T. Clark, 1973, ISBN 0-567-02242-0, 1979, ISBN 0-567-02243-9, 1986-87. ISBN 0-567-02244-7, ISBN 0-567-09373-5.</ref> His ''An Introduction to the Complete Dead Sea Scrolls,'' revised edition (2000), is a study of the collection at Qumran.<ref name="britannica.com">"Jesus Christ." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 08 Nov. 2010 [http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/303091/Jesus-Christ].</ref>
 
Until his death, he was a Professor Emeritus of Jewish Studies and Emeritus Fellow of [[Wolfson College, Oxford]], but continued to teach at the [[Oriental Institute, Oxford|Oriental Institute]] in [[Oxford]]. He had edited the ''[[Journal of Jewish Studies]]''<ref name = "JJS">[http://www.jjs-online.net JJS Online].</ref> from 1971 to his death, and from 1991 he had been director of the Oxford Forum for [[Qumran]] Research at the [[Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies]]<ref>[http://www.ochjs.ac.uk/ Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies].</ref> He inspired the creation of the British Association for Jewish Studies (BAJS) in 1975 and of the European Association for Jewish Studies (EAJS) in 1981 and acted as founding president for both.
 
Vermes was a Fellow of the [[British Academy]]; a Fellow of the European Academy of Arts, Sciences and Humanities; holder of an Oxford D. Litt. (1988) and of honorary doctorates from the [[University of Edinburgh]] (1989), [[University of Durham]] (1990), [[University of Sheffield]] (1994) and the Central European University of Budapest (2008). He was awarded the Wilhelm Bacher Memorial Medal by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (1996), the Memorial Medal of the city of Makó, his place of birth (2008) and the keys of the cities of Monroe LA and Natchez MI (2009). He received a vote of congratulation from the U.S. House of Representatives, proposed by the Representative of Louisiana on 17 September 2009.
 
In the course of a lecture tour in the United States in September 2009, Vermes spoke at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill, at Duke University in Durham NC, at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore MD, and at the University of Louisiana at Monroe and at Baton Rouge.
 
On 23 January 2012 Penguin Books celebrated at Wolfson College, Oxford, the golden jubilee of Vermes's ''The Dead Sea Scrolls in English'', which has sold an estimated half-a-million copies worldwide. A "Fiftieth anniversary" edition has been issued in the Penguin Classics series.
 
==Historical Jesus==
{{main|Historical Jesus}}
Vermes described Jesus as a 1st-century Jewish holy man, a commonplace view in academia but novel to the public when Vermes began publishing<ref>http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/17/world/europe/geza-vermes-dead-sea-scrolls-scholar-dies-at-88.html?_r=0</ref>. Contrary to certain other scholars (such as E. P. Sanders<ref name = "Sanders">Sanders, E. P. The historical figure of Jesus. Penguin, 1993.</ref>), Vermes concludes that Jesus did not reach out to non-Jews. For example, he attributes positive references to Samaritans in the gospels not to Jesus himself but to early Christian editing. He suggests that, properly understood, the historical Jesus is a figure that Jews should find familiar and attractive. This historical Jesus, however, is so different from the Christ of faith that Christians, says Vermes, may well want to rethink the fundamentals of their faith.<ref name="Vermesepi">Vermes, Geza. The authentic gospel of Jesus. London, Penguin Books. 2004. Epilogue. p. 398-417.</ref>
 
Important works on this topic include ''Jesus the Jew'' (1973), which describes Jesus as a thoroughly Jewish Galilean charismatic, and ''The Gospel of Jesus the Jew'' (1981), which examines Jewish parallels to Jesus’ teaching.<ref name="britannica.com"/>
 
Vermes believed it is possible "to retrieve the authentic Gospel of Jesus, his first-hand message to his original followers."<ref>Géza Vermes, "The great ''Da Vinci Code'' distraction", in ''[[The Times]]'', 6 May 2006. Article reproduced in Vermes, ''Searching For The Real Jesus: Jesus, The Dead Sea Scrolls and Other Religious Themes'' (SCM Press, 2009). ISBN 978-0-334-04358-1 {{Please check ISBN|reason=Check digit (1) does not correspond to calculated figure.}}</ref>
 
== Opera selecta ==
* ''Post-Biblical Jewish Studies''. Lugduni Batavorum: Brill, 1975. ISBN 90-04-04160-5
* ''The Dead Sea Scrolls: Qumran in perspective''. Minneapoli: Fortress Press, 1977. ISBN 0-8006-1435-6
* ''The Gospel of Jesus the Jew''. Novi Castelli: University of Newcastle upon Tyne, 1981
* ''Jesus and the World of Judaism''. Minneapoli: Fortress Press, 1983. ISBN 0-8006-1784-3
* (cum [[Martinus Goodman|Martino Goodman]]) ''The [[Essenes]] According to the Classical Sources''. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1989. ISBN 1-85075-139-0
* ''The Religion of Jesus the Jew''. Minneapoli: Fortress Press, 1993. ISBN 0-8006-2797-0
* ''Providential Accidents''. Londinii: SCM Press, 1998. ISBN 0-334-02722-5; Lanham Terrae Mariae: Rowman & Littlefield, 1998. ISBN 0-8476-9340-6 [De vita sua] {{Google Books|rH69p6a9bcEC|Paginae selectae}}
* ''The Changing Faces of Jesus''. Londinii: Penguin, 2001. ISBN 0-14-026524-4
* ''Jesus in his Jewish Context''. Minneapoli: Fortress Press, 2003. ISBN 0-8006-3623-6
[[Categoria:Catholici]]
[[Categoria:Interpretes textuum Hebraicorum]]
[[Categoria:Interpretes textuum Aramaicorum]]
[[Categoria:Philologi Britanniae]]
[[Categoria:Clerici Hungariae]]

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