Symbiosis purgatoria

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Cleaning symbiosis

Buphagus africanus dorsum asini purgat.

Symbiosis purgatoria[1] est consociatio mutuo salutaris inter singula animalia binarum specierum, ubi unum, purgator, parasitos aliasque res a superficie alterius, clientis, aufert atque edit. Notissimum exemplum est symbiosis purgatoria piscium Labroidium, qui tantum fere maioribus piscibus purgandis nutriuntur. Haec symbiosis etiam apud aliis piscibus, avibus, ac mammalibus reperitur.

Primum Herodotus in Historiis circa annum 440 a.C.n. hanc purgationem prodidit, sed exemplum eius, in quo aves crocodilis serviunt, raro tantum fieri videtur. Propositum symbioseon purgatoriarum a biologis plus triginta annos disputatum est. Alii credunt purgationem esse laborem ab utraque parte sui utilitatis immemori actum, mutualismum qui valetudinem amborum animalium augeat; alii, ut Robertus Trivers, putant purgationem esse altruismum mutuum, in quo utraque pars sua et non alterius causa facit; alii credunt purgationem esse nihil nisi quaestum unius partis, formam parasitismi.

Etiam fraudatio fit, ubi purgator clientem nocet aut species praedatoria purgatorem imitatur. Fraudatio praedatoria est contrarium imitationis Batesianae, ut cum syrphus innocens vespam aculeatam imitatur. Aliqui pisces vero purgatorii, ut elacatini et labroides, eorumdem colorum sunt, propter evolutionem convergentem. Similitudo mutua inter pisces purgatorios comparanda est cum imitatione Mülleriana, qua apes aculei et vespae inter se imitantur.

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Haec appellatio a Vicipaediano e lingua indigena in sermonem Latinum conversa est. Extra Vicipaediam huius locutionis testificatio vix inveniri potest.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Carvalho, Lucélia Nobre; Arruda, Rafael; Jansen, Zuanon (2003). "Record of cleaning behavior by Platydoras costatus (Siluriformes: Doradidae) in the Amazon Basin, Brazil" (PDF). Neotropical Ichthyology. 1 (2): 137–139. doi:10.1590/S1679-62252003000200009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-27.
  • Catellacci, Alima; Wooddell, Alexandra; Rice, Marc R. "Cleaning symbiosis and diel behavior of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) at Puako, Hawai'i" (PDF). Hawaiʻi Preparatory Academy. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
  • Cheney, Karen L.; Côté, Isabelle M. (2005). "Frequency-dependent success of aggressive mimics in a cleaning symbiosis". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 272: 2635–2639. doi:10.1098/rspb.2005.3256. JSTOR 30047878. PMC 1559983 Freely accessible. PMID 16321786.
  • Cheney, L. K.; Côté, M. (2005). "Mutualism or parasitism? The variable outcome of cleaning symbioses". Biology Letters. 1 (2): 162–165. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2004.0288. PMC 1626222 Freely accessible. PMID 17148155.
  • Davenport, John (1994). "A cleaning association between the oceanic crab Planes minutus and the loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta". Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 74 (3): 735–737. doi:10.1017/S0025315400047780.
  • Francke, Oscar F.; Villegas-Guzmán, Gabriel A. (2006). "Symbiotic relationships between pseudoscorpions (Arachnida) and packrats (Rodentia)" (PDF). Journal of Arachnology. 34 (2): 289–298. doi:10.1636/04-36.1.
  • Grutter, Alexandra S. (2002). "Cleaning symbioses from the parasites' perspective". Parasitology. 124: S65–S81. doi:10.1017/S0031182002001488.
  • Limbaugh, C. (1961). "Cleaning symbiosis". Scientific American. 205 (2): 42–49. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0861-42.
  • Losey, G.S. (1972). "The Ecological Importance of Cleaning Symbiosis". Copeia: 820–833. doi:10.2307/1442741.
  • Macfarland, Craig G.; Reeder, W. G. (1974). "Cleaning symbiosis involving Galapagos tortoises and two species of Darwin's finches". Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie. 34 (5): 464–483. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.1974.tb01816.x.
  • Poulin. R; Grutter, A.S. (1996). "Cleaning symbiosis: proximate and adaptive explanations" (PDF). BioScience. 46 (7): 512–517. doi:10.2307/1312929.
  • Sazima, Ivan; Grossman, Alice; Sazima, Cristina (2004). "Hawksbill turtles visit moustached barbers: cleaning symbiosis between Eretmochelys imbricata and the shrimp Stenopus hispidus". Biota Neotropica. 4 (1): 1–6. doi:10.1590/s1676-06032004000100011.
  • Sazima, Ivan; Sazima, Cristina (2010). "Brazilian cleaner birds: update and brief reappraisal". Biota Neotropica. 10 (1): 327–331. doi:10.1590/s1676-06032010000100028.
  • Stummer, Laura E.; Weller, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Magnus L.; Côté, Isabelle M. (2004). "Size and stripes: how fish clients recognize cleaners" (PDF). Animal Behaviour. 68 (1): 145–150. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2003.10.018.
  • Weeks, Paul (2000). "Red-billed oxpeckers: vampires or tickbirds?". Behavioral Ecology. 11 (2): 154–160. doi:10.1093/beheco/11.2.154.
  • Wyman, Richard L.; Ward, Jack A. (1972). "A cleaning symbiosis between the cichlid fishes Etroplus maculatus and Etroplus suratensis. I. Description and possible evolution". Copeia. 1972 (4): 834–838. doi:10.2307/1442742. JSTOR 1442742.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Commons-logo.svg Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad pisces purgatorios spectant.