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Sphenodon

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Tuatara (5205719005).jpg
Sphenodon punctatus punctatus, "tuatara septentrionalis"

Classis : Reptilia 
Ordo : Rhynchocephalia 
Familia : Sphenodontidae 
Genus : Sphenodon 
Gray, 1831 (nomen conservatum)
   
Palaeontologia
Miocaeno ineunte – praesens, 19–0 m.a.
[1]
Conservationis status
Subdivisiones: Species
* S. punctatus
(Gray, 1842) (conserved name)
  • S. diversum
    Colenso, 1885
Synonyma
* Sphaenodon
Gray, 1831 (rejected name)
  • Hatteria
    Gray, 1842 (rejected name)
  • Rhynchocephalus
    Owen, 1845 (rejected name)
Species typica
Sphenodon punctatus Gray, 1842
Territorium
World.distribution.rhynchocephalia.colour contrast.png
Distributio naturalis (Nova Zelandia)

Sphenodon (Maorice tuatara[3]) est genus reptilium endemicorum in Nova Zelandia. Quamquam plurimarum lacertarum similes, partes stirpis distinctae sunt, ordinis Rhynchocephalium.[4] Una species Sphenodontis est sola sui ordinis species,[5] qui aevo Triassico abhinc 250 fere millionum ortus,[6][7] aevo Mesozoico vigebat.[8] Maiores communes recentissimi sunt Squamata.[9] Quam ob rem, Sphenodontes in studio evolutionis lacertarum et anguium magni momenti sunt, atque in proprietatubus habitibusque primorum diapsidorum reconstructis, gregis tetrapodorum amniotorum cui etiam sunt dinosauria (cum avibus) et crocodilia.

Cladogramma[recensere | fontem recensere]

Cladogramma coniunctiones Sauriorum exstantium indicat.[10] Numeratae res sunt 1, Sphenodon; 2, Lacertae; 3, Angues; 4, Crocodilia; 5, Aves. "Lacertae" sunt paraphyleticae; longitudines ramorum tempora divergentiae non indicant.

Sphenodontes inter lacertas primum anno 1833 digesti sunt, cum Museum Britannicum calvariam acciperet.[11] Genus false classificabatur donec anno 1867 Albertus Günther, qui opus museo tum dabat, proprietates avium, testudinum, crocodiliumque similes observavit, unde ordinem Rhynchocephalium pro Sphenodonte et eius cognatis proposuit.[5]

Magnitudines Sphenodontis punctati et hominis.
Calvaria Sphenodontis completos arcus temporales monstrat, cum ossibus singulis.
Sphenodon in West Coast Wildlife Centre ad Franz Josef in occidentali Novae Zelandiae litore.
Sphenodon mas, Henry appellatus, in Southland Museum and Art Gallery habitans, iam sexualiter activus est, 111 annos natus.[12]

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. "Sphenodon Gray 1831 (rhynchocephalian)" Formula:Dead link
  2. IUCN (vide situs scientificos)
  3. "The Tuatara". Kiwi Conservation Club: Fact Sheets. Royal Forest and Bird Protection Society of New Zealand Inc.. 2009 
  4. "Tuatara". New Zealand Ecology: Living Fossils. TerraNature Trust. 2004 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Günther A (1867). "Contribution to the anatomy of Hatteria (Rhynchocephalus, Owen).". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 157: 595–629 
  6. Jones M. E., Anderson C. L., Hipsley C. A., Müller J, Evans S. E., Schoch R. R. (2013). "Integration of molecules and new fossils supports a Triassic origin for Lepidosauria (lizards, snakes, and tuatara)". BMC Evolutionary Biology 13 (208): 208 
  7. Gemmell, N.J.Erratum: Verbum "etal" non recognitum. (2020). "The tuatara genome reveals ancient features of amniote evolution". Nature 584 (7821): 403–409 .
  8. "Tuatara". Conservation: Native Species. Threatened Species Unit, Department of Conservation, Government of New Zealand 
  9. Rest, Joshua S.; Ast, Jennifer C.; Austin, Christopher C.; Waddell, Peter J.; Tibbetts, Elizabeth A.; Hay, Jennifer M.; Mindell, David P. (2003-01-01). "Molecular systematics of primary reptilian lineages and the tuatara mitochondrial genome". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 29 (2): 289–297 .
  10. Fry, B.G.; Vidal, N.; Norman, J. A.; Vonk, F. J.; Scheib, H.; Ramjan, R.; Kuruppu, S.; Fung, K. et al (2005). "Early evolution of the venom system in lizards and snakes". Nature 439 (7076): 584–588 .
  11. Lutz 2005, p. 42.
  12. "Archived copy" .

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Daugherty, Charles, et Alison Cree. 1990. "Tuatara: a survivor from the dinosaur age." New Zealand Geographic 6 (Aprilis–Iunium): 60.
  • Lutz, Dick. 2005. Tuatara: A Living Fossil. Salem Oregoniae: DIMI PRESS. ISBN 978-0-931625-43-5.
  • McKintyre, Mary. 1997. Conservation of the Tuatara. Victoria University Press. ISBN 978-0-86473-303-0.
  • Newman, Don G. 1987. Tuatara. Endangered New Zealand Wildlife Series. Dunedin, New Zealand: John McIndoe et Department of Conservation; Portlandiae Oregoniae: distributus ab I.S.B.S. ISBN 0868680982, ISBN 978-0-86868-098-9.
  • Parkinson, Brian. 2000. The Tuatara. Reed Children’s Books. ISBN 978-1-86948-831-4.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Commons-logo.svg Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad Sphenodontem punctatum spectant (Sphenodon punctatus, Sphenodon).
Wikispecies-logo.svg Vide "Sphenodontem" apud Vicispecies.
Wikidata-logo.svg Situs scientifici:  • ITIS • NCBI • Biodiversity • Encyclopedia of Life • Fossilworks