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Rationes inter imperia Sinicum et Romanum

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Tabula Eurasiae anni 1, in qua videri possunt Imperium Romanum (rubro colore), Imperium Parthicum (fusco), Domus Han (flavo), regna Indica et aliae civitates minores (flavo diluto)
Rationes commercii inter imperium Romanum et orientem, secundum librum saeculi I Periplum maris Erythraei

Rationes inter imperia Sinicum et Romanum, viis plerumque non rectis habitae, comprehenderunt commutationem et coniunctionem nuntiorum, sapientiae, commerciique inter imperium Romanum et imperium Sinicum domûs Han atque inter Imperium Romanum Orientale et varias domos Sinicas. Haec imperia gradatim invicem appropinquabant, Romanis in Orientem Medium, Sinisque Han in Mediam Asiam invadentibus. Paulum autem alii alios cognoverant et raro nuntios communicare conati sunt. Imperia internuntia velut Regnum Parthorum et Imperium Cossanum ad rectionem commercii serici retinendam communicationem inter illa imperia inhibuerunt. Anno 97 Ban Chao dux Sinicus Gan Ying legatum Romam mittere conatus est, cui vero Parthi dissuaserunt ne Sinum Persicum transiret. Scriptores rerum gestarum Sinici nonnullos legatos Romanos in Sinas venisse tradunt: primum ab Antonino Pio vel Marco Aurelio anno 166 missum, alios annis 226 et 284 advenisse, deinde post longum intervallum primum legatum ex imperio Romano orientali anno 643 venisse.

In Via Serica viisque marinis, sericum Sinicum atque vitrea et panni subtiles Romani commutabantur. Nummi Romani inde a saeculo primo facti in Sinis inventi sunt, atque nummus Maximiani et medalia Antonini Pii et Marci Aurelii in Vietnamia, eadem regione ubi scriptores Sinici Romanos egressos esse tradunt. Vitrum et argentum Romana etiam in sitibus archaeologicis Sinicis temporis Han inventa sunt. Nummi et globuli Romani etiam in Iaponia inventi sunt.

In fontibus Latinis et Graecis non facile intelligitur num mentio Sinarum sit cum nomen Seres (Graece Σῆρες) legitur, quod illud nomen adeo ambiguum est, ut complures gentes Asiaticas significare possit quae terras ab India, per Mediam Asiam, ad Sinas usque incolebant. In fontibus Sinicis imperium Romanum primo 大秦 (Dàqín, 'magna (domus) Qin'), deinde 拂菻 (Fúlǐn, originis fortasse Persicae) appellabatur. Scriptores Sinici referunt plures legatos Fulin, hoc est imperii Romani Orientalis, in Sinas tempore Domus Tang venisse et obsidionem Constantinopolis a Muawiyah I inter annos 674 et 678 factam describunt.

Geographi imperii Romani velut Ptolemaeus oceanum Indicum orientalem adumbraverunt usque ad Auream Chersonesum, sinum Thailandiensem, Mare Sinense Australe patentem. Cattigara Ptolemaei fortasse fuit Óc Eo Vietnamiae, ubi reliquiae Romanae Antonini temporis inventae sunt. Geographi Sinici aliquantum Asiam occidentalem et provincias orientales imperii Romani cognoverant. Scriptor rerum gestarum saeculi VII, Theophylactus Simocatta, descripsit coniunctionem Sinarum septentrionalium et meridianarum, quae antehac nationes separatae inter se pugnaverant. Etenim hoc tempore factum est, ut imperator Wen domus Sui domo Chen superata Sinas coniunxerit.

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