Proelium Antietamense

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Proelium Antietamense. Impressio Kurz & Allison scaenam apud Pontem Burnside depingit.

Proelium Antietamense, etiam Proelium Sharpsburgi appellatum, praecipue in Civitatibus Foederatis Meridianis, die 17 Septembris 1862 pugnatum prope Sharpsburgum et Rivum Antietamensem, pars Expeditionis Terrae Mariae, fuit primum proelium maius in Bello Civili Americano quod in terra Unionis factum est, cruentissimum et exitialissimum unius diei proelium in historia Civitatum Foederatarum, omnibus bello casibus (mortuis, vulneratis, absentibus) 22 717 numeratis.[1]

Milites mortui Confoederati ex legione Ludoviciana Starke, secundum Viam Vectigalem ad Hagerstown, ad septentriones templi Summersorum. Photographema ab Alexandro Gardner factum.

Exercitus Unionis Georgii B. McClellan generalis maioris Exercitum Confoederatarum Roberti E. Lee generalis in Terram Mariae insequens, impetum contra Lee fecit, qui locos defendendos pone Rivum Antietamense tenebat. Prima luce diei 17 Septembris, corpus Iosephi Hooker generalis maioris vim lateri laevo Leeano intulit.

Impetus et impetus contra hostium impetum agrum maizii Milleranum transgrediebantur, et rixa circa templum sectae Summersorum appellatae appropinquavit. Oppugnationes Unionis contra viam consessam medium Confoederatum ad ultimum penetraverunt, sed Foederales occasionem non nacti sunt. Corpus Ambrosii Burnside generalis maioris Unionis particeps pugnae post meridiem fuerunt, pontem lapideum trans Rivum Antietamensem excepit, contraque dextram Confoederatam persecutum est.

Impetus a Corpore XII facti, a 7:30 ad 9:00 a.m.
Templum Summersorum apud Antietam.

Gravissimo pugnae tempore, divisio A. P. Hill generalis maioris Confederati ex Harpers Ferry adveniens, impetum contra hostium incautorum impetum coepit, Burnside repellens proeliumque finiens. Lee, quamquam multitudine bis superatus, omnes suas copias commisit, cum McClellan minus quam tres partes sui exercitus praemisit, quod vicissim facultatem Lee dedit agri obstruendi ne milites Foederales progredi possent. Per noctem, ambo exercitus eorum acies stabiliebant. Lee, contra caducos debilitantis cum McClellan omnem per diem 18 Septembris levia proelia conserere pergebat, cum exercitum percussum meridiem Fluminis Potomaci versus removeret.[2]

Contra minores numeros, impetus McClellaniani contractionem virium non confecit, sinens ut Lee copias transferret aciesque interiores moveret ut quamque provocationem adaequarent. McClellan, quamquam amplas copias reservatas ad minores successus amplificandos committere poterat, exercitum Leeanum non destruxit. McClellan illius incursionem in fines Terrae Mariae steterat, sed Lee ad Virginiam retrocedere potuit sine interclusionem a McClellan cauto factam. Quamquam proelium per rationes victoriae gerendae anceps fuit, exercitus Lee, iam primum repressus, ad Virginiam pedem rettulit antequam McClellan eum delere posset. Antietam ergo habetur victoria Unionis quia septentrionalem Lee incursionem continuerat, et erat occasioni ut Praeses Abrahamus Lincoln Manumissionis Edictum nuntiaret,[3] quod vicissim res publicas Britannicam et Francicam prohibuit ne eae Confoederatiam rite agnoscerent.

Pinacotheca[recensere | fontem recensere]

Exitus[recensere | fontem recensere]

Pons Burnsideanus, 17 Decembris 2012.
Corpora mortuorum Confoederatorum colliguntur ut sepeliri post proelium pugnatum possunt.[4] Photographema ab Alexandro Gardner factum.

Stephanus Sears, rerum gestarum scriptor, ait:

McClellan generalis, cum proelium contra maiores numeros ad rempublicam servandam faceret, vix 50 000 peditatuum et tormentariorum certamini commiserat. Tertia pars eius exercitus sclopeti crepitum non fecit. Nihilominus, eius milites identidem Exercitum Virginiae Septentrionalis ad ipsam marginem calamitatis egerunt—res gestae fortitudinis omnino neglectae ab imperatore qui paene nihil praeter suam cladem prohibitam anticipabat.[5][6]

Praeses Lincoln obstupescuit quod McClellan a 17 Septembris ad 26 Octobris, contra obsecrationes ab Administratione Bellica et praeside ipso iteratas, Lee trans Potomacum insequi non volebat, inopiam instrumentorum timoremque copiarum nimis productarum citans. Henricus W. Halleck generalis principalis in relatu scripsit: "Diuturna inertia tam magni exercitus se hosti victo opponentis, et per secundissimum anni tempus progressuum rapidorum et expeditionis alacris, res magni incommodi paenitentiaeque fuit."[7][8] Lincoln imperium Exercitus Potomaci a McClellan die 7 Novembris abstulit, militarem illius cursum reapse finiens.

Iacobus M. McPherson, rerum gestarum scriptor Americanus, momentum Proelii Antietamensis in libro Crossroads of Freedom summatim descripsit:

Nulla alia expeditio et proelium in bello tot consecutiones magni momenti quot res Antietamensis habebat. Mense Iulio 1863, binae Unionis victoriae apud Gettysburgum et Vicksburgum alium ictum dederunt, qui renovato Confoederatorum impetui in oriente obstetit, et tertiam Confoederatiae partem occidentalem a partibus reliquis praecidit. Mense Septembre 1864, Atlanta a Sherman capta animos Septentrionales iterum deficientes invertit et progressum ultimum ad victoriam Unionis paravit. Erant etiam momenta alia, sed numquam fierint si ternae expeditiones Confoederatae in Mississippia, Kentukia, et praecipuissime Terra Mariae autumno 1862 non superatae erant.[9][10]

Pinacotheca[recensere | fontem recensere]

Imagines infra datae comprehendunt photographemata ab Alexandro Gardner factae, qui a Matthaeo Brady conducebatur et cuius photographemata in pinacotheca Bradyana Nivi Eboraci mense Octobre 1862 exhibita sunt, et picturae murales a Iacobo Hope centurione ab Administratione Saeptum Nationali refectae.

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. McPherson 2002:3.
  2. NPS.
  3. McPherson 1988:543–558.
  4. Locus a Frassanito 1978:105–108 agnotus.
  5. Sears 1983:296.
  6. Anglice: "In making his battle against great odds to save the Republic, General McClellan had committed barely 50,000 infantry and artillerymen to the contest. A third of his army did not fire a shot. Even at that, his men repeatedly drove the Army of Northern Virginia to the brink of disaster, feats of valor entirely lost on a commander thinking of little beyond staving off his own defeat."
  7. Anglice: "The long inactivity of so large an army in the face of a defeated foe, and during the most favorable season for rapid movements and a vigorous campaign, was a matter of great disappointment and regret."
  8. Bailey 1984:67.
  9. Anglice: "No other campaign and battle in the war had such momentous, multiple consequences as Antietam. In July 1863 the dual Union triumphs at Gettysburg and Vicksburg struck another blow that blunted a renewed Confederate offensive in the East and cut off the western third of the Confederacy from the rest. In September 1864 Sherman's capture of Atlanta reversed another decline in Northern morale and set the stage for the final drive to Union victory. These also were pivotal moments. But they would never have happened if the triple Confederate offensives in Mississippi, Kentucky, and most of all Maryland had not been defeated in the fall of 1862."
  10. McPherson 2002:155.
  11. Locus a Frassanito agnotus (1978:168–170).
  12. Locus a Kalasky agnotus (1999:24–29).
  13. Milites Unionis scaenam aspicientes fortasse fuerunt milites legionis Pennsylvaniae 130, quibus munus sepulturae assignatum est.
  14. Frassanito 1978:105
  15. Locus a Frassanito agnitus (1978:144–147).
  16. Locus a Frassanito agnitus (1978:171–74).
  17. Descriptio prima dixerat "Locus pugnae Antietamensis die proelii," 17 Septembris 1862; vide autem Frassanito 1978:70–73.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Expeditio Terrae Mariae, a 3 ad 15 Septembris 1862 facta.      Confoederate      Unionis
Conspectus Proelii Antietamensis.
Impetus a Corpore I, a 5:30 ad 7:30 a.m.
Impetus a corporibus XII et II a 9 a.m. ad 1 p.m. effecti.
Mortui Confoederati in Semita Cruenta post Proelium Antietamense iacent, 1862.
Semita Cruenta anno 2005.
Praeses Lincoln Georgius B. McClellan generalis in huius tentorio prope aciem Antietamansem, 3 Octobris 1862. Photographema ab Alexandro Gardner factum.
  • Armstrong, Marion V. 2002. Disaster in the West Woods: General Edwin V. Sumner and the II Corps at Antietam. Sharpsburgi Terrae Mariae: Western Maryland Interpretive Association.
  • "Brady's Photographs: Pictures of the Dead at Antietam, New York Times, 20 Octobris 1862.
  • Bailey, Ronald H., et editores Time-Life Books. 1984. The Bloodiest Day: The Battle of Antietam. Alexandriae Virginiae: Time-Life Books. ISBN 080947401.
  • Cannan, John. 1994. The Antietam Campaign: August–September 1862. Mechanicsburgi Pennsylvainae: Stackpole. ISBN 0-938289-91-8.
  • Dawes, Rufus R. 1890, 1999. A Full Blown Yankee of the Iron Brigade: Service with the Sixth Wisconsin Volunteers. Lincolniae: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-6618-9.
  • Douglas, Henry Kyd. 1940. I Rode with Stonewall: The War Experiences of the Youngest Member of Jackson's Staff. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-0337-5.
  • Eicher, David J. 2001. The Longest Night: A Military History of the Civil War. Novi Eboraci: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-84944-5.
  • Esposito, Vincent J. 1959. West Point Atlas of American Wars. Novi Eboraci: Frederick A. Praeger. OCLC 5890637. Tabulae et verba.
  • Frassanito, William A. 1978. Antietam: The Photographic Legacy of America's Bloodiest Day. Gettysburgi Pennsylvaniae: Thomas Publications. ISBN 1-57747-005-2.
  • Harsh, Joseph L. 1999. Taken at the Flood: Robert E. Lee and Confederate Strategy in the Maryland Campaign of 1862. Cantii Ohii: Kent State University Press. ISBN 0-87338-631-0.
  • Harsh, Joseph L. 2000. Sounding the Shallows: A Confederate Companion for the Maryland Campaign of 1862. Cantii Ohii: Kent State University Press. ISBN 0-87338-641-8.
  • Jamieson, Perry D. 1999. Death in September: The Antietam Campaign. Abilene Texiae: McWhiney Foundation Press. ISBN 1-893114-07-4.
  • Kalasky, Robert. 1999. Union dead . . . Confederate Dead. Military Images Magazine 20(6).
  • Kennedy, Frances H., ed. 1998. The Civil War Battlefield Guide. Ed. 2a. Bostoniae: Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0-395-74012-6.
  • Luvaas, Jay, et Harold W. Nelson, eds. 1987. Guide to the Battle of Antietam. Laurentii Kansiae: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-0784-6.
  • McPherson, James M. 2002. Crossroads of Freedom: Antietam, The Battle That Changed the Course of the Civil War. Novi Eboraci: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513521-0.
  • Priest, John Michael. 1989. Antietam: The Soldiers' Battle. Novi Eboraci: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-508466-7.
  • Sears, Stephen W. 1983. Landscape Turned Red: The Battle of Antietam. Bostoniae: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-89919-172-X.
  • Tucker, Phillip Thomas. 2000. Burnside's Bridge: The Climactic Struggle of the 2nd and 20th Georgia at Antietam Creek. Mechanicsburgi Pennsylvaniae: Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-0199-9.
  • Welcher, Frank J. 1989. The Union Army, 1861–1865 Organization and Operations. Vol. 1, The Eastern Theater. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-36453-1.
  • Wolff, Robert S. 2000. The Antietam Campaign. In Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History, ed. David S. Heidler et Jeanne T. Heidler. Novi Eboraci: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-04758-X.

Bibliographia addita[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Armstrong Marion V., Jr. 2008. Unfurl Those Colors! McClellan, Sumner, and the Second Army Corps in the Antietam Campaign. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. ISBN 978-0-8173-1600-6.
  • Ballard, Ted. 2006. Battle of Antietam: Staff Ride Guide. Vasingtoniae: United States Army Center of Military History. OCLC 68192262.
  • Breeden, James O. 1994. Field Medicine at Antietam. Caduceus: A Humanities Journal for Medicine and the Health Sciences 10(1):8–22.
  • Carman, Ezra Ayers. 2008. The Maryland Campaign of September 1862: Ezra A. Carman's Definitive Account of the Union and Confederate Armies at Antietam. Ed. Joseph Pierro. Novi Eboraci: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-95628-5.
  • Carman, Ezra Ayers. 2010. South Mountain. The Maryland Campaign of September 1862, 1. Ed. Thomas G. Clemens. El Dorado Hills Californiae: Savas Beatie. ISBN 978-1-932714-81-4.
  • Catton, Bruce. 1958. Crisis at the Antietam. American Heritage 9(5):54–96.
  • Frassanito, William A. 1978. Antietam: The Photographic Legacy of America's Bloodiest Day. Novi Eboraci: Scribner. ISBN 978-0-684-15659-0.
  • Gallagher, Gary W., ed. 1989. Antietam: Essays on the 1862 Maryland Campaign. Kent Ohii: Kent State University Press. ISBN 0-87338-400-8.
  • Gottfried, Bradley M. 2011. The Maps of Antietam: An Atlas of the Antietam (Sharpsburg) Campaign, including the Battle of South Mountain, September 2–20, 1862. El Dorado Hills Californiae: Savas Beatie. ISBN 978-1-61121-086-6.
  • Jermann, Donald R. 2006. Antietam: The Lost Order. Gretna Ludovicianae: Pelican Publishing Co. ISBN 1-58980-366-3.
  • Jordan, Brian M. 2012. Unholy Sabbath: The Battle of South Mountain in History and Memory, September 14, 1862. El Dorado Hills Californiae: Savas Beatie LLC. ISBN 978-1-61121-088-0.
  • Harsh, Joseph L. 1998. Confederate Tide Rising: Robert E. Lee and the Making of Southern Strategy, 1861–1862. Kent Ohii: Kent State University Press. ISBN 0-87338-580-2.
  • Hartwig, D. Scott. 2012. To Antietam Creek: The Maryland Campaign of 1862. Baltimorae: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-1-4214-0631-2.
  • Murfin, James V. 1965. The Gleam of Bayonets: The Battle of Antietam and the Maryland Campaign of 1862. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. ISBN 0-8071-0990-8.
  • Priest, John M. 1992. Before Antietam: The Battle for South Mountain. Shippensburgi Pennsylvaniae: White Mane Publishing Co. ISBN 978-0-942597-37-0.
  • Rowland, Thomas J. 1998. George B. McClellan and Civil War History: In the Shadow of Grant and Sherman. Kent Ohii: Kent State University Press. ISBN 0-87338-603-5.
  • Slotkin, Richard. 2012. The Long Road to Antietam: How the Civil War Became a Revolution. Novi Eboraci: Liveright. ISBN 978-0-87140-411-4.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

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