Phememum

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Phememum (Graeco φημί 'dico') est opinabilis orationis sonus cui est abstracta significatio gesturalis, res a linguista Maria LeCron Foster proposita. Apud quam, phemema fuerunt fundamenta primae linguae humanae dictae (linguae primordialis), contra phonemata linguarum notarum, aut hodiernarum aut historicarum. Notio phememorum res magni moment in disceptatione de origine orationis et linguae sic est. Exempli gratia, sonus [m], ut gestus oralis cui significatio est, intellegitur indicare ad 'binas superficies oppositas fastigatas, comprimentes, cohibentes, opprimentes, vel innitentes'.[1][2] Reflexus huius [m] primordialis et suae significationis primae inveniuntur in linguis hodiernis ut videntur non cognatis in verbis quae ad os, genitalia femina spectant, et in eorum propagationibus semanticis (e.g., mugio, mutus, mucus; Iaponica mugon 'silentia, tacitas’; Dravidiana muka- 'facies, os'; Piro Arawak musi- 'gravidam esse', 'gravidam facere').[3] Foster in libro recentissimo[4] proponit phememicam primordialis linguae dictae formulam in sequentibus phemematibus consistit.

Consonantes linguae primordialis linguae
Labialis Dentalis Alveopalatalis Velaris Laryngealis
Resonantes m n l
bilateralis internalis liber
Stops p t c k ʔ
proiectivum introiectivum extrinsicum divergens discontinuum
Lapsus w y h
curvatus linearis continuus

Philosophus Maxine Sheets-Johnstone notione phemematica Fosterana late utitur cum arguit iconicitatem esse fundamenta rationis symbolicae.[5] Earl R. Anderson[6] indicat phememum sic esse auctum doctrinarum priorum quae partes gestus oralis actas in origine sermonis dicti posuit, sicut doctrinae naturalistae Alfredi Russel Wallace,[7] et anthropologi Eduardus Burnett Tylor,[8] qui id philologiam generativam appellavit. Implicatio coniectura phememorum est linguam primordialem articulatione duplice caruisse, quam Carolus F. Hockett linguista Americanus proposuerat pro media linguae humanae proprietate. Signa linguistica secundum hoc principium ex elementis sicut phonemata constant, quae ipsa significatione carent; e.g. cat verbum Anglicum ex phonematibus /k/, /æ/ et /t/ constat. Phemema a phonematibus sine significatione in evolutione recentiore sensus semanticos amiserunt et tum substituta sunt. Anthropologus Gordon Hewes proponit hanc mutationem ab opportunitatibus phonematum in rapida verborum recuperatione effici.[9]

Nexus interni

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Anglice: "two opposed surfaces in tapering, pressing together, holding together, crushing, or resting against."
  2. Foster 1978.
  3. Foster 1990.
  4. Foster 1996.
  5. Sheets-Johnstone 1999.
  6. Anderson 1998:63f.
  7. "The Expressiveness of Speech, or, Mouth-Gesture as a Factor in the Origin of Language," Fortnightly Review 64:528–543.
  8. Tylor (1871) 2010.
  9. Hewes 1983.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Anderson, Earl R. 1998. A Grammar of Iconism. Cranbury Novae Caesareae: Associated University Presses.
  • Foster, Mary LeCron. 1978. The Symbolic Structure of Primordial Language. In Human Evolution: Biosocial Perspectives, ed. Sherwood L. Washburn et Elizabeth R. McCown, 77–121. Menlo Park Californiae: Benjamin/Cummings.
  • Foster, Mary LeCron. 1990. The Birth and Life of Signs. In The Life of Symbols, ed. Mary LeCron Foster et Lucy Botscharow, 285–306. Boulder Colorati: Westview Press.
  • Foster, Mary LeCron. 1996. The Reconstruction of the Evolution of Human Spoken Language. In Handbook of Human Symbolic Evolution, ed. Andre Lock et Charles R. Peters, 747–775. Oxoniae: Clarendon Press.
  • Hewes, Gordon W. 1983. The Invention of Phonemically-Based Language. In Glossogenetics: The Origin and Evolution of Language, ed. Eric de Grolier, 143–162. Curiae Raetorum Helvetiae: Harwood Academic. ISBN 3718601583.
  • Sheets-Johnstone, Maxine. 1999. Sensory-kinetic Understandings of Language: An Inquiry into Origins. Evolution of Communication 3(2):149–183.
  • Tylor, Edward Burnett. 1871, 2010. Primitive Culture: Researches into the Development of Mythology, Philosophy, Religion, Art, and Custom. 2 vol. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press.
  • Wallace, Alfred Russel. The Expressiveness of Speech, or, Mouth-Gesture as a Factor in the Origin of Language. Fortnightly Review 64:528–543.