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Papyrus (materies)

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Papyrus (P. BM EA 10591 recto columnae IX, initium linearum 13–17).

Papyrus est materies naturalis chartae crassae similis, quae antiquitus superficies scribendi adhibebatur. Ex medulla Cyperi papyri facta est, unius ex cyperaceis terrarum umidarum.[1] Vocabulum papyrus etiam instrumentum in schedis talis materiei scriptum attingit, quae schedae, alia ad aliam coniunctae, in voluminibus convolvuntur, ut primum libri genus sit.

Epistula in papyro scripta, saeculo tertio a.C.n.
Pars Libri Mortuorum Aegyptiaci in papyro scripta.
Instrumentum venditionis asini: papyrus 19.3 per 7.2 cm, MS Gr SM2223, Bibliotheca Houghtoniana Universitatis Harvardianae.
Varii modi ad caulem cyperi papyri secandum et ad schedam papyri faciendam.
Cyperus papyrus, plantae apud Hortos Kewenses Londinii.

Papyrus ut videtur primum in Aegypto adhibebatur (saltem usque ad primam domum), quia planta cyperus papyrus olim per deltam Nili abundabat. Etiam per regionem Mediterraneam et in regno Kush? notus est. Praeter materiem scribendi, Aegypti antiqui papyrum in aliis artifactis construendis adhibebant, sicut naves harundinis, tegetes, funes, soleae, et corbes.[2]

Historia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Homines papyrum primum in Aegypto millennio quarto a.C.n. aut antea fabricabantur.[3][4][5] Prima papyri indicia archaeologica prope Wadi al-Jarf annis 2012 et 2013 excavata sunt, in portu Aegypti antiquae secundum litus maris rubri. Haec instrumenta, diarium Mereranum appellata, ex annis 2560–2550 fere a.C.n. exstant, circa finem regni Cheopis.[4] Haec volumina papyri ultimos annos binos magnae pyramidis Gizensis aedificandae enarrant.[6]

Nexus interni

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. "Papyrus definition". Dictionary.com 
  2. "Ebers Papyrus". Encyclopædia Britannica .
  3. Houston, Keith, The Book: A Cover-to-Cover Exploration of the Most Powerful Object of our Time (Novi Eboraci: W. W. Norton & Company, 2016), 4–8, exemplum.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Tallet, Pierre (2012). "Ayn Sukhna et Wadi el-Jarf, "Two newly discovered pharaonic harbours on the Suez Gulf". British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan 18: 147–68 .
  5. H. Idris Bell et T.C. Skeat, 1935. "Papyrus and Its Uses" (Museum Britannicum, libellus). Formula:Webarchive.
  6. Stille, Alexander. "The World's Oldest Papyrus and What It Can Tell Us About the Great Pyramids" .

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Bierbrier, Morris Leonard, ed. 1986. Papyrus: Structure and Usage. British Museum Occasional Papers 60, ser. ed. Anne Marriott. Londinii: British Museum Press.
  • Blanck, Horst. 1992. Das Buch in der Antike. Monaci: Beck. ISBN 3-406-36686-4.
  • Diringer, Davi. 1982. The Book before Printing: Ancient, Medieval and Oriental. Novi Eboraci: Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-24243-9.
  • Drenkhahn, Rosemarie. 1982. "Papyrus." In Lexikon der Ägyptologie 4, ed. Wolfgang Helck et Wolfhart Westendorf, 667–70. Wiesbaden: Spalte.
  • Kosack, Wolfgang. 2013. Schenute von Atripe De judicio finale: Papyruskodex 63000.IV im Museo Egizio di Torino: Einleitung: Textbearbeitung und Übersetzung herausgegeben von Wolfgang Kosack. Berolini: Verlag Brunner Christoph. ISBN 978-3-9524018-5-9.
  • Leach, Bridget, et William John Tait. 2000. "Papyrus." In Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology,', ed. Paul T. Nicholson et Ian Shaw, 227–53. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press.
  • Leach, Bridget, et William John Tait. 2001. "Papyrus." In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt,', ed. Donald Bruce Redford, 3: 22–24. Oxoniae, Novi Eboraci, et Cairi: Oxford University Press et The American University in Cairo Press.
  • Lyons, Martyn. 2011. Books: A Living History. Angelopoli: Getty Publications. ISBN 978-1-60606-083-4.
  • Mahnke, Heinz-Eberhard, et al. 2019. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1296207419301670?via%3Dihub "Virtual unfolding of folded papyri."] Journal of Cultural Heritage,l 31 Iulii 2019.
  • Martin, Victor. 1958. Ménandre: Le Dyscolos. Genavae: Bibliotheca Bodmeriana, Cologny.
  • Mazal, Otto. 1999. Griechisch-römische Antike. Geschichte der Buchkultur; 1. Graz: Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt. ISBN 3-201-01716-7.
  • Parkinson, Richard Bruce, et Stephen G. J. Quirke, cum contributionibus Ute Wartenberg et Bridget Leach. 1995. Papyrus. Egyptian Bookshelf. Londinii: British Museum Press. ISBN 0292765630.
  • Ray, John D.. 1999. "Papyrus." In Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt, ed. Kathryn A. Bard, 610–11. Londinii: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-18589-0.
  • Thompson, Maunde. 1912. Introduction to Greek and Latin Palaeography. Oxoniae: Clarendon Press. Editio interretialis.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Commons-logo.svg Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad papyrum spectant (Papyrus, Papyri).
Commons-logo.svg Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad papyros spectant.