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Myocastor coypus

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Classis : Mammalia 
Ordo : Rodentia 
Familia : Echimyidae 
Subfamilia : Echimyinae 
Tribus : Myocastorini 
Fabre et al., 2017[1]
Genus : Myocastor 
Kerr, 1792
Species : Myocastor coypus 
(Molina, 1782)
   
Palaeontologia
Late Pliocene – Recent
Conservationis status
Territorium
Mapa Myocastor coypus.png
Distributio geographica; ruber, endemicus; roseus, introductus
Magni dentes aurantii hic facile videntur.
Mores in Weilerswist Germaniae, in HD pleno.
Myocastor coypus in canali Mediolani.
Myocastor coypus
Myocastor coypus inter stipites in horto zoologico sedet.
Laqueus ad Myocastores coypus capiendos.
Myocastores coypus coloris aurei.
Myocastor coypus bivalve comedit.

Myocastor coypus est species magnarum et aquaticorum mammalium herbivororum[3] ordinis Rodentium. Myocastor diu erat solum genus in familiam Myocastoridarum digestum,[4] sed nunc intra Echimyidas, familiam rattorum spinosorum, digeritur.[5][6][1] Prope corpora aquae habitant, ubi se in latibulis tegunt et caulibus plantarum fluviatilium vescuntur.[7] Quae animalia, olim in subtropicis temperatisque Americae Australis regionibus endemica, in Americam Septentrionalem, Europam, Asiam, et Africam plerumque ab agricolis pellis introducta sunt.[8] Quamquam homines Myocastores coypus iam in nonnullis regionibus venantur et irretiunt, eius fossae et diaeta hominibus saepe incommodae sunt, unde species invasiva late habetur.[9]

Taxinomia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Myocastor coypus primum ab Ioanne Ignatio Molina anno 1782 nomine Mure coypus descriptus est, species generis Muris.[10] Species vicissim generi Myocastori anno 1792 a Roberto Kerr tributa est.[11] Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, separatim a Kerr, speciem Myopotamum coypus nominavit,[12] quae aliquando sic appellatur.

Quattuor subspecies late agnoscuntur.[10]

M. c. bonariensis, subspecies in maxime septentrionali (subtropica) distributionis geographicae regione praesens, typus creditur qui in alias continentes introductus est.[13]

Phylogenia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Sequentiae DNA et proteinorum genus Myocastorem esse gregem sororium generis Callistomys monstrant.[14][1] Quae bina taxa vicissim coniunctiones evolutionarias cum aliis Myocastorinorum generibus partiunt, quae hic Proechimys et Hoplomys, ibi Thrichomys sunt.

Cladogramma Myocastorinorum gradu generis

Formula:Cladogram of Myocastorini genera

Hoc cladogramma ex proprietatibus mitochondriorum et DNA nuclearis reficitur.[5][6][15][14][16][17][1]

Proprietates[recensere | fontem recensere]

Myocastor coypus permagni ratti vel castoris minime caudati aliquantulum similis est. Corpus adulti plerumque est a 4 ad 9 chiliogrammata ponderis et a 40 ad 60 centimetra longum; cauda a 30 ad 45 centimetra longa. Adultus usque ad 16 vel etiam 17 chiliogrammata esse potest, sed medium inter adultos plerumque est a 4.5 ad 7 chiliogrammata.[18][19][20] Pellis externa crassa et atrobrunnea, pellis interna mollis et cana est. Tres proprietates distinctae sunt regio alba in anteriori rostri parte, pedes posteriores digitis cuti coniunctis, et magni incisores aurantii flavique clari.[21] Papillae feminarum in summis cruribus sunt, ut pulli sugant cum femina in aqua sit.

Pinacotheca[recensere | fontem recensere]

Nexus interni

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Upham, Nathan S.; Emmons, Louise H.; Justy, Fabienne; Leite, Yuri L. R.; Loss, Ana Carolina; Orlando, Ludovic; Tilak, Marie-Ka et al (2017-03-01). "Mitogenomic Phylogeny, Diversification, and Biogeography of South American Spiny Rats". Molecular Biology and Evolution 34 (3): 613–33doi=10.1093/molbev/msw261  Formula:Free access.
  2. IUCN (vide situs scientificos)
  3. "Myocastor coypus (coypu)". University of Michigan. 1999 .
  4. Woods, C. A. (1982). "The history and classification of South American Hystricognath rodents: reflections on the far away and long ago". Mammalian Biology in South America. Pittsburgi: University of Pittsburgh. pp. 377–92 .
  5. 5.0 5.1 Galewski, Thomas; Mauffrey, Jean-François; Leite, Yuri L. R.; Patton, James L.; Douzery, Emmanuel J. P. (2005). "Ecomorphological diversification among South American spiny rats (Rodentia; Echimyidae): a phylogenetic and chronological approach". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 34 (3): 601–15 .
  6. 6.0 6.1 Upham, Nathan S.; Patterson, Bruce D. (2012). "Diversification and biogeography of the Neotropical caviomorph lineage Octodontoidea (Rodentia: Hystricognathi)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 63 (2): 417–29 .
  7. Taylor, K.; Grace, J.; Marx, B. (May 1997). "The effects of herbivory on neighbor interactions along a coastal marsh gradient". American Journal of Botany 84 (5): 709  Formula:Free access.
  8. LeBlanc, Dwight J. (1994). "Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage – Nutria" .
  9. "Living with Wildlife - Nutria" .
  10. 10.0 10.1 C. A. Woods, L. Contreras, G. Willner-Chapman, H. P. Whidden (1992). Mammalian Species: Myocastor coypus. American Society of Mammalogists, 398: 1-8.
  11. ITIS Report. "ITIS Standard Report: Myocastor" .
  12. ITIS Report. "ITIS Standard Report: Myopotamus" 
  13. Carter 2007.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Loss, Ana; Moura, Raquel T.; Leite, Yuri L. R. (2014). "Unexpected phylogenetic relationships of the painted tree rat Callistomys pictus (Rodentia: Echimyidae)". Natureza on Line 12: 132–136 .
  15. Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Galewski, Thomas; Tilak, Marie-ka; Douzery, Emmanuel J. P. (2013-03-01). "Diversification of South American spiny rats (Echimyidae): a multigene phylogenetic approach" (en). Zoologica Scripta 42 (2): 117–134 .
  16. Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Vilstrup, Julia T.; Raghavan, Maanasa; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Willerslev, Eske; Douzery, Emmanuel J. P.; Orlando, Ludovic (2014-07-01). "Rodents of the Caribbean: origin and diversification of hutias unravelled by next-generation museomics" (en). Biology Letters 10 (7): 20140266 .
  17. Upham, Nathan S.; Patterson, Bruce D. (2015). "Evolution of Caviomorph rodents: a complete phylogeny and timetree for living genera". Biology of caviomorph rodents: diversity and evolution. Buenos Aires: SAREM Series A, Mammalogical Research—Sociedad Argentina para el Estudio de los Mamíferos. pp. 63–120 .
  18. Capel-Edwards, Maureen (1967). "Foot-and-mouth disease in Myocastor coypus". Journal of Comparative Pathology 77 (2): 217–21 .
  19. Doncaster, C. P.; Micol, T. (1990). "Response by coypus to catastrophic events of cold and flooding". Ecography 13 (2): 98–104 
  20. Hillemann, Howard H.; Gaynor, Alta I.; Stanley, Hugh P. (1958). "The genital systems of nutria(Myocastor coypus)". The Anatomical Record 130 (3): 515–31 .
  21. "Myocastor coypus (Molina 1782) - Encyclopedia of Life" .

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Bertolino, Sandro, Aurelio Perrone, et Laura Gola. 2005. "Effectiveness of coypu control in small Italian wetland areas." Wildlife Society Bulletin 33, no. 2 (Iunius): 714–72.
  • Carter, Jacoby. 2007. Worldwide Distribution, Spread of, and Efforts to Eradicate the Nutria (Myocastor coypus) – South America. Vasingtoniae: United States Geological Survey.
  • Carter, Jacoby, A. L. Foote, et L. A. Johnson-Randall. 1999. "Modeling the effects of nutria (Myocastor coypus) on wetland loss." Wetlands 19 (1): 209–19.
  • Carter, Jacoby, et Billy P. Leonard. 2002. "A Review of the Literature on the Worldwide Distribution, Spread of, and Efforts to Eradicate the Coypu (Myocastor coypus)." Wildlife Society Bulletin 30, no. 1 (ver): 162–75.
  • Galewski, Thomas, Jean-François Mauffrey, Yuri L. R. Leite, James L. Patton, et Emmanuel J. P. Douzery. 2005. "Ecomorphological diversification among South American spiny rats (Rodentia; Echimyidae): a phylogenetic and chronological approach." Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 34, no. 3 (Martius): 601–615. ISSN 1055-7903. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2004.11.015.
  • Klapperstück, Johannes. (1964) 2004. Der Sumpfbiber. (Nutria). Die Neue Brehm-Bücherei, 115. Ed. tertia. Hohenwarsleben: Westarp-Wissenschaften-Verlags-Gesellschaft. ISBN 3-89432-162-8.
  • Ludwig, Mario, Harald Gebhard, Herbert W. Ludwig, et Susanne Schmidt-Fischer. 2000. Neue Tiere & Pflanzen in der heimischen Natur: Einwandernde Arten erkennen und bestimmen. Monaci: BLV. ISBN 3-405-15776-5.
  • Nolfo-Clements, Lauren E. 2006. "Seasonal variations in habitat availability, habitat selection, and movement patterns of Myocastor coypus on a subtropical freshwater floating marsh." Dissertation. Tulane University. ISBN 0-542-60916-9.
  • Sheffels, Trevor, et Mark Systma. 2007. "Report on Nutria Management and Research in the Pacific Northwest." Center for Lakes and Reservoir Environmental Sciences and Resources, Portland State University. December 2007. PDF, editio interretialis.
  • Vallance, Michel. 2007. Faune sauvage de France: biologie, habitats et gestion. Le gerfaut. ISBN 9782351910306. Google Books.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Commons-logo.svg Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad Myocastorem coypus spectant.
Wiktionary-ico-de.png Vide Myocastorem coypus in Victionario.
Wikidata-logo.svg Situs scientifici:  • ITIS • NCBI • Biodiversity • Encyclopedia of Life • IUCN Red List • WoRMS: Marine Species • Fossilworks • INPN France