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Hydrophiinae

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Pelamis platura, Costa Rica.jpg

Classis : Reptilia 
Ordo : Squamata 
Subordo : Serpentes 
Familia : Elapidae 
Subfamilia : Hydrophiinae 
   
Palaeontologia
Miocaeno – Recens[1]
Territorium
Sea Snake range.png
Distributio geographica (viridis), praeter Hydrophem platurum, speciem pelagicam maxime divulgatam

Hydrophiinae sunt subfamilia anguium venenosorum familiae Elapidarum. In circumiectis maritimis plerumque habitant. Plurimae ad vitam plene aquaticam omnino accommodantur, et praeter serpentes generis Laticaudae, in terra bene movere nequeunt. In calidis aquis litoralibus ab Oceano Indico ad Oceanum Pacificum inventae, arte cum anguibus venenosis terrestribus in Australia coniunguntur.[2] Hydrophiinae in Oceano Atlantico non fiunt.[3]

Omnibus anguibus maritimis sunt caudae remiformes, et multis sunt corpora lateraliter complanata, quam ob rem anguillarum similes videntur. Piscium autem dissimiles, eis non sunt branchiae; ergo eis supra superficiem spirandum est. Cum cetaceis, inter vertebrata planissime aquatica sunt quae aerem suspirant.[4] In hoc grege taxinomico sunt species quibus sunt potentissimum omnium anguium venenum. Nonnullis autem sunt indoles clementes, qui solum irritati mordeant, cum alii hostiliores sint. Familiae hodie sunt sexaginta novem species in septendecim genera digestae.[5][6]

Descriptio[recensere | fontem recensere]

Plurimi hydrophiinarum adulti a 120 ad 150 centimetra longi crescunt,[7] et maximus, Hydrophis spiralis, usque ad 3 metra attingit.[8] Oculi sunt parvi, pupilla rotunda,[9] et plurimis sunt nares dorsaliter siti.[3] Calvaria a calvariis elapidarum terrestrium non multum differunt, quamquam eorum dentitio est aliquantulum primitiva, dentibus brevibus et (praeter Emydocephalum) usque ad duodeviginti dentibus minoribus post eos in maxilla.[4]

Hydrophiinae parvis piscibus et aliquando octopodis iuvenibus vescuntur. Saepe cum Platylepatibus ophiophilis consociantur, cirripediis maritimis, quae sese ad eorum cutim affigere solent.[10]

Cladogramma
Elapidae

Cobra


Hydrophiinae

Laticauda




Notechis





Emydocephalus



Aipysurus





Hydrelaps



Hydrophis







Cladogramma primas coniunctiones evolutionarias inter hydrophiinas variasque angues terrestres monstrat.

Nexus interni

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. "Fossilworks: Hydrophiinae" .
  2. Hutchings, Pat (2008). The Great Barrier Reef: Biology, Environment and Management. Csiro Publishing. p. 345. ISBN 9780643099975 .
  3. 3.0 3.1 Mehrtens 1987.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Parker 1977.
  5. Lapsus in citando: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named ITIS
  6. Lapsus in citando: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named NRDB
  7. Stidworthy 1974.
  8. Fichter 1982.
  9. Ditmars 1933.
  10. Vernberg 2014: 186.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Ditmars, R. L. 1933. Reptiles of the World. Editio emendata. The MacMillan Company.
  • Fichter, G. S. 1982. Poisonous Snakes: A First Book. Franklin Watts. ISBN 0-531-04349-5.
  • Gopalakrishnakone, P., ed. 1994. Sea snake toxinology. Singapurae: Singapore University Press, National University of Singapore. ISBN 9971691930, ISBN 9971691914.
  • Graham, J. B., W. R. Lowell, I. Rubinoff, et J. Motta. 1987. "Surface and subsurface swimming of the sea snake Pelamis platurus." Journal of Experimental Biology 127: 27–44. PDF.
  • Kharin, V. E. 2004. "On the taxonomic status of the sea snake Hydrophis caerulescens (Shaw, 1802) (Serpentes: Hydrophiidae)." Biologiya Morya (Vladivostok) 30 (3): 227–29.
  • Keogh, J. S., R. Shine, et S. Donnellan. 1998. "Phylogenetic Relationships of Terrestrial Australo-Papuan Elapid Snakes (Subfamily Hydrophiinae) Based on Cytochrome b and 16S rRNA Sequences." Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 1: 67–81. ISSN 1055-7903.
  • McDowell, S. B. 1969. "Notes on the Australian sea-snake Ephalophis greyi M. Smith (Serpentes: Elapidae: Hydrophiinae) and the origin and classification of sea-snakes." Journal of the Linnean Society of London 48: 333–49. ISSN 0368-2935.
  • McDowell, S. B. 1972. "The genera of sea-snakes of the Hydrophis group (Serpentes: Elapidae)." Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 32: 189–247. ISSN 0084-5620.
  • Mehrtens, J. M. 1987. Living Snakes of the World in Color. Novi Eboraci: Sterling Publishers. ISBN 0-8069-6460-X.
  • Parker, H. W., et A. G. C. Grandison. 1977. Snakes: a natural history. Ed. secunda. Londinii: British Museum (Natural History) et Cornell University Press. LCCCN 76-54625. ISBN 0-8014-1095-9, ISBN 0-8014-9164-9.
  • Rasmussen, A. R. 1997. "Systematics of sea snakes; a critical review." Symp. Zoological Society of London 70, 15–30.
  • Smith, M. A. 1926. Monograph of the sea snakes (Hydrophiidae). Londinii: British Museum of Natural History.
  • Stidworthy J. 1974. Snakes of the World. Grosset & Dunlap Inc. ISBN 0-448-11856-4.
  • Vernberg, F. John. 2014. Behavior and Ecology. Elsevier Science. ISBN 978-0-323-16269-2. Editio interretialis: pagina 189.
  • Voris, H. K. 1977. "A phylogeny of the sea snakes (Hydrophiidae)." Fieldiana Zoologica 70: 79–169.
  • Wassenberg, T. J., J. P. Salini, H. Heatwole, et J. D. Kerr. 1994. "Incidental capture of sea snakes (Hydrophiidae) by prawn trawlers in the Gulf of Carpentaria." Australian journal of marine and freshwater research 45: 429–43. ISSN 0045-8511.
  • Whitaker, R. 1978. Common Indian Snakes: A Field Guide. Macmillan India Limited.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Wikidata-logo.svg Situs scientifici:  • ITIS • WoRMS: Marine Species • Fossilworks