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Historia Peruviae

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Expansio regionum Incarum, 14381533.
Despectus in Machu Picchu, coloniam ab Incis exstructam.
Expeditio Sierra, per Bellum Pacificum, 1882–1883. Pictura Ludovici Ferdinandi Rojas.
Terrae a Tsilia Bello Pacifico captae.

Historia Peruviae quattuor millennia comprehendit, quae per nonnulla evolutionis culturalis tempora in montanis Andium regione lacubusque retro extenditur. E Peruvia orti sunt Cultus Caralensis, veterrima civilizatio in America et una e sex veterrimis orbis terrarum culturis notis, atque Imperium Incarum, maxima et provectissima civitas sui iuris in America praecolumbiana. Quod imperium vicissim ab Imperio Hispanico saeculo sexto decimo victa est, viceregnum constituens ut plurimo suae dicionis in America Australi imperaret. Cives autem libertatem ab Hispania anno 1821 declaraverunt, sed rem publicam stabilierunt solum proelio Ayacuchensi confecto, tres annos post.

Peruvia antiqua[recensere | fontem recensere]

Primae humanae praesentiae evidentiae in terra Peruviana ab fere anno 9000 a.C.n. originem trahunt. Antiquissima nota societas multiplexis in Peruvia et in Americis, Caral Civilizatio, iuxta Oceanum Pacificum inter annos 3000 et 1800 a.C.n. floruit. Has primas evolutiones archaeologicae culturae secutae sunt inter quas Chavinensis, Paracensis, Mochica, Nazcensis, Tihuanaca, Huariensis, et Chimuensis (Hispanice Chavín, Paracas, Moche, Nazca, Tihuanaco, Huari, et Chimú, proprie) excellunt. Hae gentes faciebant opera ex auro et argento. Postea in dominationem Imperii Incarum veniebant.

Imperium Incarum[recensere | fontem recensere]

Searchtool.svg Si plus cognoscere vis, vide Imperium Incarum

Saeculo quinto decimo, Incae velut potens imperium emersere, antequam Hispanii id ceperunt. Creaverunt maximum imperium in America Meridionali Praecolumbiana. Caput Imperium Incarum fuit Cuscum. Imperium Incarum Tahuantisuiu (Quechice Tawantinsuyu) nuncupatur. Sua territoria fuerunt Aequatoria, Columbia, Chilia, Argentina, Bolivia, et pars Amazonii Nemi. Imperium Incarum divisum est in dominia Hispanice señoríos), cum societate divisa etiam in classibus. Imperator titulum Sapae Incae habebat.

Nomen Incae significat 'dei in Terra'. Sacsayhuaman fuit sedes imperii Cusci. Tahuantinsuiu divisum est in suiua (districtus): Chinchasuiu, Antisuiu, Contisuiu, et Collasuiu. Quechica fuit lingua imperii.

Antisenses societates in agricultura fundabantur, technicis velut irrigationis et aggestis utentes; camelidarum ctenotrophia et piscatus quoque ponderis erant. Structura socialis reciprocitate et redistributione nitebatur, quia hae societates nullam mercatus aut pecuniae notionem habebant.

Viceregnum Peruvianum[recensere | fontem recensere]

Searchtool.svg Si plus cognoscere vis, vide Viceregnum Peruvianum

Anno 1532, conquisitatorum circulus a Francisco Pizardo ductus Atabalipam[es] imperatorem Incarum vicit et cepit. Pizardus aurum et argentum pro liberatione Incae poposcit, et quamquam ille auri plenum conclave et duo conclavia argenti usque ad attigendorum Atabalipae bracchiorum accepit, hic supplicio affectus est, Pizardusque Tahuantisuiu cepit, et Hispanicum dominium imposuit. Decem annos postea, rex Hispanicus Viceregnum Peruvianum statuit, omnes colonias Austramericanas comprehendens. Vicerex Franciscus Toletanus ad novam rationem nationem annis a 1570 ad 1579, cum argentariis velut praecipua oeconomica activitate? et cum Amerindis sicut prima vi laborali redegit. Peruvianum aurum argentumque infectum reditus Coronae Hispanicae suppeditavit et complexam reticulationem commercialem quae ex Europa in Philippinas patuit propulit. Attamen, saeculo duodevicensimo, deflorescens argenti productio et oeconomica diversificatio regales reditus valde deminuit. Velut responsum, rex Reformationes Burbonicas, edictorum seriem quae vectigalia auxerunt et Viceregnum Peruvianum sciderunt, tulit. Novae leges Tupaci Amari rebellionem et alias seditiones provocavere, quae omnes victae sunt.

Res publica Peruviae[recensere | fontem recensere]

Proelium Angamense (Hispanice: Batalla de Angamos), decretorium proelium per bellum Pacifici.

Ineunte saeculo XIX, dum maxima Americae Meridionalis pars bellis libertatis convolvebatur, Peruvia arcem regalisticam mansit. Quia electa hominum manus inter libertatem et fidelitatem Hispanicae Monarchiae dubitabat, libertatem adsecuta est post militares Iosephi Sancti Martini et Simonis Bolívar expeditiones. Per ineuntes Reipublicae annos, endemicae pugnae pro potestate inter militares ductores politicam instabiliatem attulere. Nationalis identitas per hanc periodon procusa est, ubi Bolivariana proposita velut Confoederatio Americae Latinae defecerunt et unio cum Bolivia evanida monstrata est. Inter annos fere a 1840 ad 1870 Peruvia stabilitatis perihodo fructa est, praeside Raimundo Castilla, per quo civitas suos reditus ob guani exportationem auxit. Nihilominus, per annos a 1870 ad 1880, hae opes absumptae erant, civitati multa debita erant, politicaeque pugnae denuo surrexerunt.

Peruvia a Chiliensibus inter annos 1879 et 1883 in bello Pacifici victa est, ubi Aricae et Tarapăcae provincias in Foederibus Anconensi Limensique foederibus perdidit. Intestinas pugnas post bellum stabilitatis periodon sub Factione Civili (Hispanice Partido Civil) sequebatur, quae usque ad Augusti B. Leguía y Salcedo auctoritarii regiminis adventum duravit. Depressio magna Augusti Leguía lapsum, renovatam politicam turbam et foedus populare revolutionarium Americanum (Hispanice Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana) fecit. Certamen inter hanc societatem et electae hominum manus militaremque coalitionem Peruvianam civilitatem per proxima tria decennia definivit.

Anno 1968 vires armatae, ab Ioanne Velasco Alvarado generali ductae, subitaneam conversionem contra praesidem Fernandum Belaúnde Terry perfecerunt. Novum regimen novarum rerum reformationes suscepit, quarum proposita evolutioni fovere erant, sed consequendo amplo favore cecidit. Anno 1975, Ioannes Velasco coacte a Generali Francisco Morales Bermúdez dismissus est, qui reformationes debilitaverat et democraticae restitutioni praesiderat.

Per annos a 1980 ad 1990, Peruvia magnum debitum externum, inflationem semper crescentem, medicamentorum negotii furtivi apparitionem, et massivam politicam violentiam oppetebat. Fere 70 000 hominum per conflictum inter civitatis vires et Maoisticos Semitae Luminosae (Hispanice Sendero Luminoso) bellatores clandestinos perierunt. Inter annos 1990 et 2000, praeside Alberto Fujimori, respublica recuperari coepit; nihilominus, auctoritarismi, corruptionis, humanorum iurum violationum accusationes eius abdicationem post controversa anni 2000 comitia coegit. E Fujimoriani regiminis fine, Peruvia contra corruptionem pugnare conata est, interea oeconomico incremento servando; ex anno 2006, praeses est Alanus García Pérez a die 28 Iulii 2011 Ollanta Humala.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Generalia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Dobyns, Henry F., et Paul L. Doughty. 1976. Peru: A cultural history. Novi Eboraci: Oxford University Press.
  • Higgins, James. 2006. Historia de la literatura peruana. Limae: Universidad Ricardo Palma, Editorial Universitaria. ISBN 9972236129, ISBN 9789972236129.
  • Werlich, David P. 1978. Peru: a short history. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. ISBN 0809308304.

Victoria[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Cieza de León, Pedro de. 1998. The Discovery and Conquest of Peru: Chronicles of the New World Encounter. Ed. et conversus ab Alexandra Parma Cook et David Noble Cook. Durham: Duke University Press.
  • Hemming, John. 1970. The Conquest of the Incas. Novi Eboraci: Harcourt Brace Janovich.
  • Lockhart, James. 1972. The Men of Cajamarca; a social and biographical study of the first conquerors of Peru. Austin: Institute of Latin American Studies, University of Texas Press.
  • Yupanqui, Titu Cusi. 2005. An Inca Account of the Conquest of Peru. Conv. Ralph Bauer. Boulder: University Press of Colorado.

Aetas colonica[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Andrien, Kenneth J. 1985. Crisis and Decline: The Viceroyalty of Peru in the Seventeenth Century. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
  • Andrien, Kenneth J. 2001. Andean Worlds: Indigenous History, Culture, and Consciousness under Spanish Rule, 1532–1825. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
  • Bakewell, Peter J. 1988. Silver and Entrepreneurship in Seventeenth-Century Potosí: The Life and times of Antonio López de Quiroga. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
  • Baker, Geoffrey. 2008. Imposing Harmony: Music and Society in Colonial Cuzco. Durham: Duke University Press.
  • Bowser, Frederick P. 1973. The African Slave in Colonial Peru, 1524–1650. Stanfordiae: Stanford University Press.
  • Bradley, Peter T. 1989. The Lure of Peru: Maritime Intrusion into the South Sea, 1598–1701. Novi Eboraci: St Martin's Press.
  • Bradley, Peter T. 1992. Society, Economy, and Defence in Seventeenth-Century Peru: The Administration of the Count of Alba de Liste (1655–61). Liverpoliae: Institute of Latin American Studies, University of Liverpool.
  • Burns, Kathryn. 1999. Colonial Habits: Convents and the Spiritual Economy of Cuzco, Peru.
  • Cahill, David. 2002. From Rebellion to Independence in the Andes: Soundings from Southern Peru, 1750–1830. Amstelodami: Aksant.
  • Chambers, Sarah C. 1999. From Subjects to Citizens: Honor, Gender, and Politics in Arequipa, Peru, 1780–1854. University Park: Penn State Press.
  • Charnay, Paul. 2001. Indian Society in the Valley of Lima, Peru, 1532–1824. Blue Ridge Summit: University Press of America.
  • Dean, Carolyn. 1999. Inka Bodies and the Body of Christ: Corpus Christi in Colonial Cuzco, Peru. Durham: Duke University Press.
  • Fisher, John. 2003. Bourbon Peru, 1750–1824. Liverpoliae: Liverpool University Press.
  • Fisher, John R., Allan J. Kuethe, et Anthony McFarlane, eds. 2003. Reform and Insurrection in Bourbon New Granada and Peru. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.
  • Garrett, David T. 2005. Shadows of Empire: The Indian Nobility of Cusco, 1750–1825. Novi Eboraci: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 052184634X.
  • Griffiths, Nicholas. 1996. The Cross and the Serpent: Religious Repression and Resurgence in Colonial Peru. Normanniae: University of Oklahoma Press.
  • Hyland, Sabine. 2003. The Jesuit and the Incas: The Extraordinary Life of Padre Blas Valera, S.J. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  • Jacobsen, Nils. 1996. Mirages of Transition: The Peruvian Altiplano, 1780–1930. Berkeleiae: University of California Press. ISBN 0520079388. ISBN 0520082915.
  • Lamana, Gonzalo. 2008. Domination Without Dominance: Inca-Spanish Relations in Early Colonial Peru. Durham: Duke University Press.
  • Lockhart, James. 1968. Spanish Peru, 1532–1560: A Social History.
  • MacCormack, Sabine. 1991. Religion in the Andes: Vision and Imagination in Colonial Peru. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Mangan, Jane E. 2005. Trading Roles: Gender, Ethnicity, and the Urban Economy in Colonial Potosí. Durham: Duke University Press.
  • Marks, Patricia. 2007. Deconstructing Legitimacy: Viceroys, Merchants, and the Military in Late Colonial Peru. University Park: Penn State Press.
  • Means, Philip Ainsworth. (1933) 1964. Fall of the Inca Empire and the Spanish Rule in Peru: 1530–1780. Novi Eboraci: Gordian Press.
  • Miller, Robert Ryal, ed. 1975. Chronicle of Colonial Lima: The Diary of Joseph and Francisco Mugaburu, 1640–1697. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
  • Mills, Kenneth. 1997. Idolatry and Its Enemies: Colonial Andean Religion and Extirpation, 1640–1750. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Osorio, Alejandra B. 2008. Inventing Lima: Baroque Modernity in Peru's South Sea Metropolis. Novi Eboraci: Palgrave.
  • Poma de Ayala, Felipe Guaman. 2009. The First New Chronicle and Good Government: On the History of the World and the Incas up to 1615. Ed. et conv. Roland Hamilton. Austin: University of Texas Press.
  • Porras Barrenechea, Raúl. 2016. El nombre del Perú. Limae: Lápix editores. ISBN 9786124722110.
  • Premo, Bianca. 2005. Children of the Father King: Youth, Authority, and Legal Minority in Colonial Lima. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
  • Ramírez, Susan Elizabeth. 1996. The World Turned Upside Down: Cross-Cultural Contact and Conflict in Sixteenth-Century Peru. Stanfordiae: Stanford University Press.
  • Serulnikov, Sergio. 2003. Subverting Colonial Authority: Challenges to Spanish Rule in Eighteenth-Century Southern Andes. Durham: Duke University Press.
  • Spalding, Karen. 1984. Huarochirí: An Andean Society Under Inca and Spanish Rule. Stanfordiae: Stanford University Press.
  • Stavig, Ward. 1999. The World of Tupac Amaru: Conflict, Community, and Identity in Colonial Peru. Lincolniae: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0803242719, ISBN 0803292554.
  • Tandeter, Enrique. 1993. Coercion and Market: Silver Mining in Colonial Potosí, 1692–1826. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
  • TePaske, John J., ed. et conv. 1978. Discourse and Political Reflections on the Kingdom of Peru by Jorge Juan and Antonio Ulloa. Normanniae: University of Oklahoma Press.
  • Thomson, Sinclair. 2003. We Alone Will Rule: Native Andean Politics in the Age of Insurgency. Madisoniae: University of Wisconsin Press.
  • Van Deusen, Nancy E. 2001. Between the Sacred and the Worldly: the Institutional and Cultural Practice of Recogimiento in Colonial Lima. Stanfordiae: Stanford University Press.
  • Varón Gabai, Rafael. 1997. Francisco Pizarro and His Brothers: The Illusion of Power in Sixteenth-Century Peru. Conv. Javier Flores Espinosa. Normanniae: University of Oklahoma Press.
  • Walker, Charles F. 2008. Shaky Colonialism: The 1746 Earthquake-Tsunami in Lima, Peru, and Its Long Aftermath. Stay.
  • Wightman, Ann M. 1990. Indigenous Migration and Social Change: The Forasteros of Cuzco, 1570–1720. Durham: Duke University Press.

Aetas post libertatem assecutam[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Blanchard, Peter. 1992. Slavery and Abolition in Early Republican Peru. Wilmington: Scholarly Resources.
  • Bonilla, Heraclio. 178. The War of the Pacific and the national and colonial problem in Peru. Past & Present 81(1): 92–118.
  • Cueto, Marcos. 2001. The return of epidemics: health and society in Peru during the twentieth century. Ashgate.
  • Hünefeldt, Christine. 194. Paying the Price of Freedom: Family and Labor Among Lima's Slaves, 1800–1854. Conv. Alexandra Minna Stern. Berkeleiae et Angelopoli: University of California Press.
  • Kenney, Charles Dennison. 2004. Fujimori's coup and the breakdown of democracy in Latin America. University of Notre Dame Press.
  • Larson, Brooke. 2004. Trials of Nation Making: Liberalism, Race, and Ethnicity in the Andes, 1810–1910. Novi Eboraci: Cambridge University Press.
  • Méndez G., Cecilia. 2005. The plebeian republic: the Huanta rebellion and the making of the Peruvian state, 1820–1850. Durham: Duke University Press.
  • Miller, Rory. 1987. Region and Class in Modern Peruvian History. Liverpoliae: Institute of Latin American Studies, Unhiversity of Liverpool
  • Pike, Frederick B. 1967. The Modern History of Peru. Londii: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
  • Starn, Orin. 1995. Maoism in the Andes: The Communist Party of Peru-Shining Path and the refusal of history. Journal of Latin American Studies 27(2: 399–421.
  • Walker, Charles F. 1999. Smoldering Ashes: Cuzco and the Creation of Republican Peru, 1780–1840. Durham: Duke University Press.

Historica oeconomica et laboris[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • De Secada, C. Alexander G. 1985. Arms, guano, and shipping: the WR Grace interests in Peru, 1865–1885. Business History Review 59(4: 597–621.
  • Drake, Paul. 1994. International Crises and Popular Movements in Latin America: Chile and Peru from the Great Depression to the Cold War. In Latin America in the 1940s, ed. David Rock, 109-140. Berkeleiae et Angelopoli: University of California Press.
  • Gootenberg, Paul. 1989. Between silver and guano: commercial policy and the state in postindependence Peru. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Gootenberg, Paul. 2008. Andean cocaine: the making of a global drug. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.*Greenhill, Robert G., et Rory M. Miller. 1973. The Peruvian Government and the nitrate trade, 1873–1879. Journal of Latin American Studies 5(1): 107–131.
  • Keith, Robert G. 1979. Conquest and Agrarian Change: The Emergence of the Hacienda System on the Peruvian Coast. Cantabrigiae Massachusettae: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674162935.
  • Peloso, Vincent C. 1999. Peasants on Plantations: Subaltern Strategies of Labor and Resistance in the Pisco Valley, Peru. Duke University Press.
  • Purser, Michael, et W. F. C. Purser. 1971. Metal-mining in Peru, past and present. Novi Eboraci: Praeger Publishers.
  • Quiroz, Alfonso W. 1993. Domestic and foreign finance in modern Peru, 1850–1950: financing visions of development. Pittsburgi: University of Pittsburgh Press.
  • Stewart, Watt. 1946. Henry Meiggs: Yankee Pizarro. Durham Carolinae Septentrionalis: Duke University Press.

Fontes primarii[recensere | fontem recensere]

Historiographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Nexus interni

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Pinacotheca[recensere | fontem recensere]