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Glycolysis

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Summarium glycolysis
D-glucose wpmp.svg Brenztraubensäure.svg + Brenztraubensäure.svg
Ex una molecula glucosi decem reactionibus biochemicis
et duae moleculae acidi pyruvici et duae ATP et duae NADH nascuntur:
α-D-glucosum + 2NAD+ + 2ADP + 2Pi ⟹ 2(Pyruvatum) + 2NADH + 2ATP + 2H+ + 2H2O

Glycolysis (Graece γλυκύς glykys 'dulcis‘ + λύσις lysis 'dissolutio') est iter metabolicum in matrice cytoplasmatica percursum conversionum biochemicarum celerium a materia propulsoria externa glucoso C6H12O6 ad acidum pyruvicum CH3COCOO + H+ intergradum ad nullum oxygenium consumentem formationem materiae propulsoriae internae ad usum mitochondriorum et organellarum cytoplasmatis et membranarum cellularium. Fructus secundus ad usum cellulae reactionum redoxidativarum multarum NADH + H+ est.

Varietates, quarum frequentissima et notissima (itaque in hoc loco descripta) est secundum Gustavum Embden et Otto Fritz Meyerhof (Via Embden-Meyerhof), notae sunt.

Significatio et contextus[recensere | fontem recensere]

Glycolysis est pars catabolismi saccharidi in organismo plurimorum animalium. Ita magnus huius reactionum decursus est, ut non modo imminuantur moleculas monosaccharidi glucosi, sed recipiantur alia etiam commutantia antea monosaccharida, per exemplum fructosum. Sub intentione metabolica forti glycolyse celeriter energia prope locum indigentiae permitti possit, per exemplum prope vesiculas neurotransmissorum.[1]

Usus proximus acidi pyruvici ex oxygenii praesentia pendet. Oxygenio praesente oxidatio in cyclo acidi citrici atque cursu phosphorylationis oxidativae ad aquam et dioxidum carbonii latior fit, absente invicem fermentatio (fermentatio homolactica) ad acidum lactatum.

Ad summam, glycolysis a saccharidis nullo spatio interposito et celeriter energiam creat. Pro vita cottidiana equidem ad energiam efficiendum machinationes metabolismi supplentes necesse sunt. Oxygenio autem absente saccharomycetes glycolysem augebunt et consumptio glucosi aucta simul Effectus Pasteur nominatur.

Locus glycolysis[recensere | fontem recensere]

Reactiones biochemicae glycolysis in cellula, ibidem in matrice cytoplasmatica fiunt. Praesentia magnesii satis significationem habere videtur, quod dimidiae ( 1, 3, 7, 9, 10 [2]) omnium reactionum hoc elemento egent.

Nonnullis protozois organella praecipua, glycosomata nominata, sunt, in quibus enzymi glycolysis inveniuntur. Exemplum protozoi cum glycosomatibus sunt trypanosomatidae, quae trypanosomiasem excitare possunt.

Cursus[recensere | fontem recensere]

Summarium graduum[recensere | fontem recensere]

In glycolysi ab una molecula glucosi effecto, duae acidi pyruvici fiunt:

D-Glucosum Acidum pyruvicum
D-glucose wpmp.svg + 2 NAD+ + 2 ADP + 2 Pi Biochem reaction arrow forward NNNN horiz med.svg 2 Pyruvate2 wpmp.png + 2 NADH + 2 H+ + 2 ATP + 2 H2O

Decem gradus accidunt, quorum primi quinque (reactiones biochemicae 1-5) pars praeparatoria et ultimi quinque gradus (reactiones biochemicae 6-10) pars quaestuosa nominantur.

Pars praeparatoria

Gradus Substratum Enzymum Classis enzymarum Annotationes
1 Glucosum Glc Hexokinasis HK Transferasis Cofactor: Mg2+,
Adenosini triphosphatum (ATP)
(energia) consumitur
2 α-D-Glucoso-6-phosphatum G6P Phosphoglucosi isomerasis PGI Isomerasis
3 β-D-Fructoso-6-phosphatum F6P 6-Phosphofructokinasis PFK-1 Transferasis Cofactor: Mg2+,
Adenosini triphosphatum (ATP)
(energia) consumitur
4 β-D-Fructoso-1,6-bisphosphatum F1,6BP Aldolasis ALDO Lyasis
5 Dihydroxyacetonophosphatum DHAP Triosophosphati Isomerasis TPI Isomerasis

Pars quaestuosa

Gradus Substratum Enzymum Classis enzymarum Annotationes
6 Glyceraldehydro-3-phosphatum GADP Glyceraldehydrophosphati dehydrogenasis GAPDH Oxidoreductasis Nicotinamidi Adenini Dinucleotidum
(NADH, baiulus hydrogenii) formatur. Additio phosphati phosphorolysis vocatur.
7 1,3-Bisphosphoglyceratum 1,3BPG Phosphoglycerati kinasis PGK Phosphoglycerati kinasis Cofactor: Mg2+,
Adenosini triphosphatum (ATP)
(energia) formatur
8 3-Phosphoglyceratum 3PG Phosphoglycerati mutasis PGM Mutasis
9 2-Phosphoglyceratum 2PG Enolasis ENO Lyasis Cofactor: 2 Mg2+,
una molecula aquae liberatur
10 Phosphoenolpyruvatum PEP Pyruvati kinasis PK Transferasis Cofactor: Mg2+,
Adenosini triphosphatum (ATP)
(energia) formatur

Gradus glycolysis[recensere | fontem recensere]

Reactio biochemica 1: Hexokinasis (HK)[recensere | fontem recensere]

1. A glucoso ad glucoso-6-phosphatum

Hac in reactione prima phosphatum additur et in decima demum removebitur. Iste grex phosphati glucosum ex cellulam evadere prohibet, hexokinasis similem hauritorii glucosi laborans. Cofactor est Mg2+. Kation hydrogenii deponitur.

Haec reactio consumit energiam. ΔG° = -16,7 kJ/mol.

De biochemico Warburg effectus metabolismi maximi in cancro descriptus hac reactione hexokinasis molita est.

D-Glucosum Hexokinasis α-D-Glucoso-6-phosphatum
100%
ATP ADP
Biochem reaction arrow reversible YYYN horiz med.svg
(Mg2+) H+
100%

Reactio biochemica 2: Phosphoglucosi isomerasis (PGI)[recensere | fontem recensere]

2. A glucoso-6-phosphato ad fructoso-6-phosphatum

Fructosi (cum phosphato) formatio.

α-D-Glucoso-6-phosphatum Phosphoglucosi isomerasis β-D-Fructoso-6-phosphatum
100%
Biochem reaction arrow reversible NNNN horiz med.svg
100%

Reactio biochemica 3: Phosphofructokinasis (PFK-1)[recensere | fontem recensere]

3. A fructoso-6-phosphato ad fructoso-1,6-bisphosphatum

Cum energia phosphofructokinasis imponit alium phosphatum in moleculam - brevi bipartita ... Hic quoque Mg2+ cofactor est. Iterum kation hydrogenii deponitur.

Haec reactio consumit energiam. ΔG° = -14,2 kJ/mol.

β-D-Fructoso-6-phosphatum Phosphofructokinasis β-D-Fructoso-1,6-bisphosphatum
100%
ATP ADP
Biochem reaction arrow reversible YYYN horiz med.svg
(Mg2+) H+
100%

Reactio biochemica 4: Aldolasis (ALDO)[recensere | fontem recensere]

4. A fructoso-1,6-bisphosphato ad glyceraldehydro-3-phosphatum et dihydroxyacetonophosphatum

Separatio ex uno pentoso uno ad duos triosos: aldolasis fructosum moleculis duabus phosphati gravidum in partes duas, quaeque unam moleculam phosphati portans, dividit. Solum dihydroxyacetonophosphatum in reactionem proximam (5) ingreditur. Altera substantia, glyceraldehydro-3-phosphatum, reactioni proximae deest, et statim in reactionem sextam (6) transit.

β-D-Fructoso-1,6-bisphosphatum Aldolasis D-Glyceraldehydro-3-phosphatum Dihydroxyacetonophosphatum
100%
Biochem reaction arrow reversible NNNN horiz med.svg
100% + 100%

Reactio biochemica 5: Triosophosphati isomerasis (TPI)[recensere | fontem recensere]

5. A dihydroxyacetonophosphato ad glyceraldehydro-3-phosphatum

Unitas: Post isomerasem secundam nihil restat aliud quam Glyceraldehydrum cum phosphato.

Dihydroxyacetonophosphatum Triosophosphati isomerasis D-Glyceraldehydro-3-phosphatum
100%
Biochem reaction arrow reversible NNNN horiz med.svg
100%

Reactio biochemica 6: Glyceraldehydrophosphati dehydrogenasis (GAPDH)[recensere | fontem recensere]

6. A glyceraldehydro-3-phosphato ad 1,3-bisphosphoglyceratum

Oxidatio et phosphorylatio (phosphorolysis).

D-Glyceraldehydro-3-phosphatum GAPDH D-1,3-Bisphosphoglyceratum
100%
NAD+ NADH
Biochem reaction arrow reversible YYYY horiz med.svg
Pi H+
100%

Reactio biochemica 7: Phosphoglycerati kinasis (PGK)[recensere | fontem recensere]

7. A 1,3-bisphosphoglycerato ad 3-phosphoglyceratum

Cofactor: Mg2+

Haec reactio consumit energiam. ΔG° = -18,5 kJ/mol).

D-1,3-Bisphosphoglyceratum Phosphoglycerati kinasis D-3-Phosphoglyceratum
100%
ADP ATP
Biochem reaction arrow reversible YYNY horiz med.svg
H+ (Mg2+)
100%

Reactio biochemica 8: Phosphoglycerati mutasis (PGM)[recensere | fontem recensere]

8. A 3-phosphoglycerato ad 2-phosphoglyceratum
D-3-Phosphoglyceratum Phosphoglycerati mutasis D-2-Phosphoglyceratum
100%
Biochem reaction arrow reversible NNNN horiz med.svg
100%

Reactio biochemica 9: Enolasis (ENO)[recensere | fontem recensere]

9. A 2-phosphoglycerato ad phosphoenolpyruvatum

Cofactores: Duo ionta Mg2+, alterum ob causam phosphoglyceratorum conformationis appendicis carboxylici alterum ut socius dehydratationis.

D-2-Phosphoglyceratum Enolasis Phosphoenolpyruvatum
100%
H2O
Biochem reaction arrow reversible NYYN horiz med.svg
(2 Mg2+)
100%

Reactio biochemica 10: Pyruvati kinasis (PK)[recensere | fontem recensere]

10. A phosphoenolpyruvato ad acidum pyruvicum

Cofactor: Mg2+

Haec reactio consumit energiam. ΔG° = -31,4 kJ/mol.

Phosphoenolpyruvatum Pyruvati kinasis Acidum pyruvicum
100%
ADP ATP
Biochem reaction arrow reversible YYNY horiz med.svg
H+ (Mg2+)
100%

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. S. Jan et alii (2016), "Glycolytic enzymes localize to synapses under energy stress to support synaptic function," Neuron.
  2. Magnesio omnia kinasium enolasisque egent

Nexus interni

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Marks: Basic Medical Biochemistry, Wolters Kluwer & Lippincott, Williams and Williams
biochemia Haec stipula ad biochemiam spectat. Amplifica, si potes!