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Equus africanus asinus

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Donkey in Clovelly, North Devon, England.jpg

Classis : Mammalia 
Ordo : Perissodactyla 
Familia : Equidae 
Genus : Equus 
Species : Equus africanus 
Subspecies : Equus africanus asinus 
Linnaeus, 1758
   
Conservationis status
DOM

Equus africanus asinus[1] est subspecies mammalium ordinis Perissodactylorum, domestica familiae Equidarum pars. Eius progenitor ferus est Equus africanus.

Asinus tris hebdomades natus.

Haec subspecies animali laboris saltem 5000 annorum prodest. Sunt in mundo plus quam 40 milliones asinorum,[2] plerumque in civitatibus provectibilibus, ubi praesertim animalibus tractationis prosunt. Asini laborantes saepe cum hominibus in vel sub gradibus subsistentiae consociantur. Pauci feturae causa tenentur, sive animalibus dilectis in civitatibus divitibus prosunt.

Asini anno 3000 a.C.n. fere primum domabantur, fortasse in Aegypto vel Mesopotamia, et per paene omnem tellurem hodie inveniuntur. Personas magni momenti in multis locis iam agunt. Cum numerus specierum domesticarum continenter crescat, Equus africanus ferus est species in discrimen adducta. Asini, ambo iumenta et comites, cum hominibus sapientibus aliquot millennia una laborant.

Equus


Zebrae

Equus zebra The natural history of horses (Plate XXI) cropped.jpg





Equus quagga chapmani The natural history of horses (Plate XXII) cropped.jpg



Equus quagga quagga The natural history of horses (Plate XXIV) cropped.jpg




Equus grevyi The natural history of horses (Plate XXIII) cropped.jpg




Asini feri


Equus kiang The natural history of horses (Plate XX) (cropped).jpg




Equus hemionus onager The natural history of horses (Plate XVIII) cropped.jpg



Equus hemionus kulan The natural history of horses (Plate XIX) cropped.jpg




Asini

Equus africanus africanus NIEdot332 white background.jpg



Equus africanus somaliensis Equus taeniopus - 1700-1880 - Print - Iconographia Zoologica - Special Collections University of Amsterdam - cropped.jpg






Equi

Equus ferus caballus NIEdot332 white background 2.jpg



Equus ferus ferus NIEdot332 white background 2.jpg



Equus ferus przewalski The Soviet Union 1959 CPA 2325 stamp (Przewalski's Horse) white background.jpg




Cladogramma equorum ex Vilstrup et al. 2013.[3]

Proprietates[recensere | fontem recensere]

Asini magnitudine multo variant, in typum et administrationem positi. Altitudo in armis a 79 ad 160 centimetra variat, et ab 80 ad 480 chiliogrammata ponderis sunt. Assini laborantes in culturis pauperibus plerumque a duodecim a quindecim annos, sed in regionibus prosperis a triginta ad quinquaginta annos vivere possunt.[4]

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 2003.
  2. Kugler, Grunenfelder, et Broxham 2008.
  3. Vilstrup et al. 2013.
  4. Agriculture and Rural Development 1990.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Agriculture and Rural Development, Government of Alberta. 1990. "The Donkey." Editio interretialis.
  • Clutton-Brock, Juliet. 1992. Horse power: a history of the horse and the donkey in human societies. Cantabrigiae Massachusettae: Harvard University Press. ISBN 067440646X.
  • Flade, Johannes Erich. 2000. Die Esel: Haus- und Wildesel: Equus asinus. Die neue Brehm-Bücherei, 638. Hohenwarsleben bei Magdeburg: Westarp Wissenschaften. ISBN 3-89432-887-8.
  • Haskel, J. Greenfield, Itzhaq Shai, Tina L. Greenfield, Elizabeth R. Arnold, Annie Brown, Adi Eliyahu, et Aren M. Maeir. 2018. "Earliest evidence for equid bit wear in the ancient Near East: The "ass" from Early Bronze Age Tell eṣ-Ṣâfi/Gath, Israel." PLOS One, 16 Maii 2018. Editio interretialis.
  • Hodges, Meredith. 1999. Training mules and donkeys: a logical approach to longears: Donkey training. Lovelandiae Colorati: Lucky Three Ranch, Inc. ISBN 1928624022.
  • International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 2003. "Usage of 17 specific names based on wild species which are pre-dated by or contemporary with those based on domestic animals (Lepidoptera, Osteichthyes, Mammalia): conserved: Opinion 2027 (Case 3010)." Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 60 (1): 81–84.
  • Kugler, Waltraud, Hans-Peter Grunenfelder, et Elli Broxham. 2008. Donkey Breeds in Europe: Inventory, Description, Need for Action, Conservation; Report 2007/2008. St. Gallen Helvetiae: Monitoring Institute for Rare Breeds and Seeds in Europe. PDF.
  • Machiavelli, Niccolò. 2015. Der Esel / L'Asino. Conversus cum commentario a Dirk Hoeges. Coloniae: Machiavelli Edition. ISBN 978-3-9815560-2-5.
  • Pascual Barea, Joaquín. 2016. "Asinus y asellus: los dos tipos de asno doméstico en latín clásico." Pallas: Révue d'Études Antiques 101: 279–91. Editio interretialis.
  • Person, Jutta. 2013. Esel: Ein Portrait. Berolini: Matthes & Seitz. ISBN 978-3-88221-078-1.
  • Plagemann, Volker, et Max Denzler. 1967. "Esel." In Reallexikon zur Deutschen Kunstgeschichte 5: 1484–1528.
  • Rossel, Stine, et al. 2008. "Domestication of the donkey: Timing, processes, and indicators." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105, no. 10 (11 Martii): 3715–20. doi:10.1073/pnas.0709692105. Abstractum. Editio interretialis.
  • Svendsen, Elisabeth, ed. 1997. The professional handbook of the donkey. Ed. tertis. Londinii: Whittet Books. ISBN 978-1-873580-37-0.
  • Vilstrup, J. T., A. Seguin-Orlando, M/ Stiller, A. Ginolhac, M. Raghavan, S. C. Nielsen, J. Weinstock, D. Froese, S. K. Vasiliev, N. D. Ovodov, J. Clary, K. M. Helgen, R. C. Fleischer, A. Cooper, B. Shapiro, et L. Orlando. 2013. "Mitochondrial phylogenomics of modern and ancient equids." PLOS ONE 8 (2): e55950. PMID 23437078. PMC 3577844. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055950. Bibcode 2013PLoSO...855950V.
  • Vogel, Martin. 1973. Onos Lyras: Der Esel mit der Leier. Orpheus-Schriftenreihe zu Grundfragen der Musik, 13. Dusseldorpiae: Verlag der Gesellschaft zur Förderung der systematischen Musikwissenschaft. DNB 730360423.

Nexus interni

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Commons-logo.svg Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad Equum asinum spectant.