Usor:Katxis/Cultura Romae antiquae
Ars athletica and entertainment[recensere | fontem recensere]
The ancient city of Rome had a place called the Campus, a sort of drill ground for Roman soldiers, which was located near the Tiber river. Later, the Campus became Rome’s track and field playground, which even Julius Caesar and Augustus were said to have frequented. Imitating the Campus in Rome, similar grounds were developed in several other urban centers and military settlements.
In the campus, the youth assembled to play, exercise, and indulge in appropriate sports, which included jumping, wrestling, boxing and racing. Riding, throwing, and swimming were also preferred physical activities. In the countryside, pastimes also included fishing and hunting. Females did not participate in these activities. Ball playing was a popular sport and ancient Romans had several ball games, which included Handball (Expulsim Ludere), field hockey, catch, and some form of Football.
Board games played in ancient Rome included dice (Tesserae or tali), Roman chess (Latrunculi), Roman Checkers (Calculi), tic-tac-toe (Terni Lapilli), and ludus duodecim scriptorum and tabula, predecessors of backgammon.
There were several other activities to keep people engaged like chariot races, musical and theatrical performances, public executions and gladiatorial combat. In the Colosseum, Rome’s amphitheatre, 60,000 persons could be accommodated. There are also accounts of the Colosseum’s floor being flooded to hold mock naval battles for the public to watch.
In addition to these, Romans also spent their share of time in bars and brothels, and graffiti carved into the walls of these buildings was common. Based on the number of messages found on bars, brothels, and bathhouses, it's clear that they were popular places of leisure and people spent a deal of time there.
- Pugilatio (Graeci antiqui)
- Iactus disci
- Iactus globi
- Circus Agonalis
Scientia et technologia[recensere | fontem recensere]
Roman technology is the engineering practice which supported Roman civilization and made the expansion of Roman commerce and Roman military possible for over a millennium (753 BC–476 AD). The Roman Empire had one of the most advanced set of technologies of its time, some of which was lost during the turbulent eras of Late Antiquity and the early Middle Ages.
Ars ingeniaria[recensere | fontem recensere]
Romans are famous for their advanced engineering accomplishments, although some of their own inventions were improvements on older ideas, concepts and inventions. Technology for bringing running water into cities was developed in the east, but transformed by the Romans into a technology inconceivable in Greece. The architecture used in Rome was strongly influenced by Greek and Etruscan sources.
- Aqueducts: Catorze aqüeductes portaven milers de milions de litres d'aigua a la ciutat de Roma i gran part de l'aigua era per a usos públics. Els aqüeductes es podien estendre durant 100 quilòmetres amb una disminució del nivell de 300 metres a l'inici fins a 60 metres a l'arribada. Els enginyers romans utilitzaven sifons inversos quan calia. Els romans construïren els primers molins hidràulics a occident. També van utilitzar l'energia hidràulica en la mineria.
- Bridges: As pontes romanas estavam entre as primeiras grandes estruturas e as maiores pontes já construídas. Elas eram construídas com pedras, empregando o arco como estrutura básica. A maioria usasa também concreto. Construída no ano Formula:AC, a Ponte Emílio, mais tarde denominada Ponte Rotto (Ponte Quebrada) é a mais antiga ponte romana de pedra em Roma, Itália. A maior ponte romana foi a ponte de Trajano sobre o rio Danúbio, construída por Apolodoro de Damasco, que durou mais de mil anos; a mais longa ponte construída tanto em termos de comprimento quanto de vão aberto. Era normalmente ao menos 18 metros acima da água. Como exemplos de ponte militar temporária temos as duas Pontes de César sobre o Danúbio.
- Dams: The Romans built many dams for water collection, such as the Subiaco dams, two of which fed Anio Novus, the largest aqueduct supplying Rome. One of the Subiaco dams was reputedly the highest ever found or inferred. They built 72 dams in Spain, such as those at Mérida, and many more are known across the empire. At one site, Montefurado in Galicia, they appear to have built a dam across the river Sil to expose alluvial gold deposits in the bed of the river. The site is near the spectacular Roman gold mine of Las Medulas.
- Roads: Roman roads were constructed to be immune to floods and other environmental hazards. Some roads built by the Romans are still in use today. There were several variations on a standard Roman road. Most of the higher quality roads were composed of five layers. The bottom layer, called pavimentum, was one inch thick and made of mortar. Above this were four strata of masonry. The layer directly above the pavimentum was called the statumen. It was one foot thick, and was made of stones bound together by cement or clay.
- Mining: The Romans were the first to exploit mineral deposits using advanced technology, especially the use of aqueducts to bring water from great distances to help operations at the pithead. Their technology is most visible at sites in Britain such as Dolaucothi where they exploited gold deposits with at least 5 long aqueducts tapping adjacent rivers and streams. They used the water to prospect for ore by unleashing a wave of water from a tank to scour away the soil and so reveal the bedrock with any veins exposed to sight. They used the same method (known as hushing) to remove waste rock, and then to quench hot rocks weakened by fire-setting.
- Military engineering: Engineering was also institutionally ingrained in the Roman military, who constructed forts, camps, bridges, roads, ramps, palisades, and siege equipment amongst others. One of the most notable examples of military bridge-building in the Roman Empire was Julius Caesar's bridge over the Rhine River. This bridge was completed in only ten days by a dedicated team of engineers. Their exploits in the Dacian wars under Trajan in the early 2nd century AD are recorded on Trajan's column in Rome. The army was also closely involved in gold mining and probably built the extensive complex of leats and cisterns at the Roman gold mine of Dolaucothi in Wales shortly after conquest of the region in 75 AD.
- Power technology: Water wheel technology was developed to a high level during the Roman period, a fact attested by Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder in De Architectura and Naturalis Historia respectively. The largest complex of water wheels existed at Barbegal near Arles, where the site was fed by a channel from the main aqueduct feeding the town. It is estimated that the site comprised 16 separate overshot water wheels arranged in two parallel lines down the hillside. The outflow from one wheel became the input to the next one down in the sequence.
Materials[recensere | fontem recensere]
The most common materials used were brick, stone or masonry, cement, concrete and marble. Brick came in many different shapes. Curved bricks were used to build columns, and triangular bricks were used to build walls.
Marble was mainly a decorative material. Augustus Caesar once boasted that he had turned Rome from a city of bricks to a city of marble. The Romans had originally brought marble over from Greece, but later found their own quarries in northern Italy.
Cement was made of hydrated lime (calcium oxide) mixed with sand and water. The Romans discovered that substituting or supplementing the sand with a pozzolanic additive, such as volcanic ash, would produce a very hard cement, known as hydraulic mortar or hydraulic cement. They used it widely in structures such as buildings, public baths and aqueducts, ensuring their survival into the modern era.
They also used mud stone and wood boards when they wanted a different structure
Mathematica[recensere | fontem recensere]
Numeri[recensere | fontem recensere]
Systema nume The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. The numbers 1 to 10 are usually expressed in Roman numerals as follows:
- I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X.
The use of Roman numerals continued long after the decline of the Roman Empire. From the 14th century on, Roman numerals began to be replaced in most contexts by the more convenient Hindu-Arabic numerals; however, this process was gradual, and the use of Roman numerals persists in some minor applications to this day.
Abacus[recensere | fontem recensere]
The Ancient Romans developed the Roman hand abacus, a portable, but less capable, base-10 version of the previous Babylonian abacus. It was the first portable calculating device for engineers, merchants and presumably tax collectors. It greatly reduced the time needed to perform the basic operations of arithmetic using Roman numerals.
Medicina[recensere | fontem recensere]
Medicina in Roma antiqua coniuxit varias artes dissimilia instrumenta utendum. Magna influi Graeca super medicianm Romanam exsistit, cum medici cum cognitione medicamentorum in Imperium Romanum laborandi.
Medicina Romana divisa est in specializationem quod ophthalmologia et urologia. A variety of surgical procedures were carried out using many different instruments including forceps, scalpels and catheters.
Metallurgia[recensere | fontem recensere]
Metals and metal working had been known to the people of modern Italy since the Bronze Age. By 53bc, Rome had already expanded to control an immense expanse of the Mediterranian. This included nine provinces radiating from Italy to its islands, Spain, Macedonia, Africa, Asia Minor, Syria and Greece, and by the end of the Emperor Trajan's reign, the Roman Empire had grown further to encompass parts of Britain, Egypt, all of modern Germany west of the Rhine, Dacia, Noricum, Judea, Armenia, Illyria and Thrace (Shepard 1993). As the empire grew, so did its need for metals.
Central Italy itself was not rich in metal ores, leading to necessary trade networks in order to meet the demand for metal from the Republic. Early Italians had some access to metals in the northern regions of the peninsula in Tuscany and Cisalpine Gaul, as well as the islands Elba and Sardinia. With the conquest of Etruria in 275 BC and the subsequent acquisitions due to the Punic Wars, Rome had the ability to stretch further into Transalpine Gaul and Iberia, both areas rich in minerals. At the height of the Roman Empire, Rome exploited mineral resources from Tingitana in north western Africa to Egypt, Arabia to North Armenia, Galatia to Germania, and Britannia to Iberia, encompassing all of the Mediterranean coast. Britannia, Iberia, Dacia, and Noricum were of special significance, as they were very rich in deposits and became major sites of resource exploitation (Shepard, 1993).
There is evidence that after the middle years of the Empire there was a sudden and steep decline in mineral extraction. This was mirrored in other trades and industries.
One of the most important Roman sources of information is the Naturalis Historia of Pliny the Elder who died in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD. Several books (XXXIII-XXXVII) of his encyclopedia cover metals and metal ores, their occurrence, importance and development.
Theatrum[recensere | fontem recensere]
The theatre of ancient Rome was a diverse and interesting art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre and acrobatics, to the staging of Plautus's broadly appealing situation comedies, to the high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies of Seneca. Although Rome had a native tradition of performance, the Hellenization of Roman culture in the 3rd century BC had a profound and energizing effect on Roman theatre and encouraged the development of Latin literature of the highest quality for the stage.
Traditiones[recensere | fontem recensere]
Virtutes[recensere | fontem recensere]
Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]
- Harvey, Brian. "Graffiti from Pompeii"
- Duruy, Victor, and J. P. Mahaffy. History of Rome and the Roman People: From Its Origin to the Establishment of the Christian Empire. London: K. Paul, Trench & Co, 1883. Page 17