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Cingischam Imperator. Pictura in Museo Palatii Reipublicae, Taipeii Taivaniae, servata.
Wikidata-logo.svg Cingischam
Res apud Vicidata repertae:
Cingischam: imago
Nativitas: 1162; Q2068087
Obitus: 25 Augusti 1227;
Patria: Imperium Mongolicum

Cingischam,[1] vel Cingis Chan,[2] vel Schinguis Kan[3] (Mongolice: Чингис Хаан; Sinice: 成吉思汗; Pinyin: Chèngjísī Hàn) (probabiliter[4] 11621227), natus Borjigin Temüjin, fuit dux Mongolum Tartarorumque et conditor, rector (khan), et imperator (khagan) Imperii Mongolici, quod ipso mortuo maximum orbis terrarum imperium continuum confine factum est.

Singulare imperium coniungendis multis Asiae Septentrio-Orientalis tribubus nomadicis adquisivit. Imperio Mongolico condito seque "Cingischam" declarato, inruptiones Mongolicas iussit, quae ad extremum ei victoriam plurimi Eurasiae dedit. Hae inruptiones vel incursus Khanatus Kara-Khitan, Caucasi, Imperii Khwarezmidi, et Sinarum domuum Xia Occidentalis ac Jin comprehenderunt. Haec bella saepe magnas hominum non militarium caedes complexa sunt, praecipue in Khwarezmia. Antequam obitus est, Imperium Mongolicum maiorem Mediae Asiae Sinarumque partem occupaverat.

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Simon de Sancto Quintino, Historia Tartarorum (anno circiter 1247), ed. Jean Richard (Lutetiae 1965).
  2. Iohannes Iacobus Hofmannus, Lexicon Universale (1698), lemma 'Tartari'.
  3. Iohannes Iacobus Hofmannus, Lexicon Universale (1698), lemma 'Mogolia'.
  4. Rashid al-Din ait Chingischam annos 72 habuisse; ergo natus est anno 1155. En: autem ait: <<The Yuanshi (??, History of the Yuan dynasty, not to be confused with the era name of the Han Dynasty), records his year of birth as 1165. According to Ratchnevsky, accepting a birth in 1155 would render Genghis Khan a father at the age of 30 and would imply that he personally commanded the expedition against the Tanguts at the age of 72. Also, according to the Altan Tobci, Genghis Khan's sister, Temülin, was nine years younger than he; but the Secret History relates that Temülin was an infant during the attack by the Merkits, during which Genghis Khan would have been 18, had he been born in 1155. Zhao Hong reports in his travelogue that the Mongols he questioned did not know and had never known their ages.>>

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Ratchnevsky, Paul. 1991, 1992. Genghis Khan: His Life and Legacy [Čingis-Khan: sein Leben und Wirken]. Ed. & conv. Thomas Nivison Haining. Oxoniae et Cantabrigiae Massachusettae: B. Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-16785-4.
  • Man, John. 2004. Genghis Khan: Life, Death and Resurrection. Londinii: Bantam Press. ISBN 978-0-553-81498-9.

Bibliographia addita[recensere | fontem recensere]

Monumentum Hulunbuir in urbe situm.
  • Brent, Peter (1976). The Mongol Empire: Genghis Khan: His Triumph and His Legacy. Londinii: Weidenfeld & Nicholson. ISBN 029777137X 
  • Bretschneider, Emilii (1888, repr. 2001). Mediæval Researches from Eastern Asiatic Sources; Fragments Towards the Knowledge of the Geography & History of Central & Western Asia. Trübner's Oriental Series. Londinii: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co (repr. Munshirm Manoharlal Pub Pvt Ltd). ISBN 81-215-1003-1 
  • Cable, Mildred; Francesca French (1943). The Gobi Desert. Londinii: Landsborough Publications 
  • Charney, Israel W. (ed.) (1994). Genocide: A Critical Bibliographic Review. Novi Eboraci: Facts on File Publications 
  • De Hartog, Leo (1988). Genghis Khan: Conqueror of the World. Londinii: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd. 
  • de Sancto Quintino, Simon. 1965. Historia Tartarorum (anno circiter 1247 scripta), ed. Jean Richard. Lutetiae.
  • Farale, Dominique (2002). De Gengis Khan à Qoubilaï Khan: la grande chevauchée mongole. Campagnes & stratégies. Lutetiae: Economica. ISBN 2-7178-4537-2 
  • Farale, Dominique (2007). La Russie et les Turco-Mongols: 15 siècles de guerre. Lutetiae: Economica. ISBN 978-2-7178-5429-9 
  • Genghis Khan. World Almanac Education Group. 2005  Via the Internet Archive's copy of the History Channel website.
  • Smitha, Frank E. "Genghis Khan and the Mongols". Macrohistory and World Report 
  • Kahn, Paul (adaptor) (1998). Secret History of the Mongols: The Origin of Chingis Khan (expanded edition): An Adaptation of the Yüan chʾao pi shih, Based Primarily on the English Translation by Francis Woodman Cleaves. Asian Culture Series. Boston: Cheng & Tsui Co.. ISBN 0-88727-299-1 
  • Kennedy, Hugh (2002). Mongols, Huns & Vikings. Londinii: Cassell. ISBN 0-304-35292-6 
  • Kradin, Nikolay; Tatiana Skrynnikova (2006). Imperiia Chingis-khana (Chinggis Khan Empire). Moscow: Vostochnaia literatura. ISBN 5-02-018521-3  (Summarium Anglicum)
  • Kradin, Nikolay; Tatiana Skrynnikova (2006). "Why do we call Chinggis Khan's Polity 'an Empire'". Ab Imperio 7 (1): 89–118 
  • Lamb, Harold (1927). Genghis Khan: The Emperor of All Men. Novi Eboraci: R. M. McBride & company 
  • Lister, R. P. (2000 [c1969]). Genghis Khan. Lanham, Maryland: Cooper Square Press. ISBN 0-8154-1052-2 
  • Man, John (2004). Genghis Khan: Life, Death and Resurrection. Londinii, Novi Eboraci: Bantam Press. ISBN 0-593-05044-4 
  • Man, John (1997, 1998, 1999). Gobi: Tracking the Desert. Londinii, Portu Novo: Weidenfeld & Nicolson; Yale University Press. ISBN 0-7538-0161-2 
  • Martin, Henry Desmond (1950). The Rise of Chingis Khan and his Conquest of North China. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press 
  • May, Timothy (2001). "Mongol Arms". Explorations in Empire: Pre-Modern Imperialism Tutorial: The Mongols. San Antonio College History Department 
  • Morgan, David (1986). The Mongols. The Peoples of Europe. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-17563-6 
  • Saunders, J.J. (1972, repr. 2001). History of the Mongol Conquests. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0812217667 
  • Stevens, Keith. Formula:PDFlink Retrieved 22 Maii 2008.
  • Stewart, Stanley (2001). In the Empire of Genghis Khan: A Journey among Nomads. Londinii: Harper Collins. ISBN 0-00-653027-3 
  • Turnbull, Stephen (2003). Genghis Khan & the Mongol Conquests 1190–1400. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-523-6 
  • Valentino, Benjamin A. (2004). Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide in the Twentieth Century. Ithaca, Novi Eboraci: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0801439655 
  • Weatherford, Jack (2004). Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World (review). Novi Eboraci: Crown. ISBN 0-609-61062-7 
  • Zerjal, Xue, Bertorelle, Wells, Bao, Zhu, Qamar, Ayub, Mohyuddin, Fu, Li, Yuldasheva, Ruzibakiev, Xu, Shu, Du, Yang, Hurles, Robinson, Gerelsaikhan, Dashnyam, Mehdi, Tyler-Smith (2003). "The Genetic Legacy of the Mongols" ( – Scholar search). The American Journal of Human Genetics 72 (3): 717–721; 

Fontes primi[recensere | fontem recensere]

David's face Haec stipula ad biographiam spectat. Amplifica, si potes!