Cena Banchoni a Macbetho oblata

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"Macbeth actus II scaena 4", pictura linearis a Mauricio Retzsch exarata (Gallery to Shakespeare's dramatic works, Novi Eboraci, 1853)

Cena Banchoni a Macbetho oblata in chronicis regni Scotiae describitur. Haec ab Hectore Boethio de rege Macbetho (qui ab anno fere 1040 usque ad 1057 regnavit) narratur:

Agitabant eum furiae (quod fit in tyrannis et per scelus respublicas occupantibus), nec id eum non metuere perpetuo sinebant quiod ipse alteri fecisset. Accedabat earundum quae ipsum regnum praedixerant vaticinio, Banquhonis posteris promissum esse regnum. Itaque nihil quale ipse suspicabatur cogitantem Banquhonem ad coenam cum filio, id est ad caedam, invitat. Nec tamen aedem hospitalem sanguine eius maculare voluit, sed ut etiam a se crimen avertere valeret, si obiectum aliquando foret, ad facinus promptos extra regiam aliquot expectare iubet, quoad Banquho exiret: tum quasi per tumultum eum invaderent cum filio Fleancho obtrucarentque. Sed nocturnae caliginis beneficio filius singulari Dei auxilio percussorum evasit manus, fatis ad meliorem fortunam eum servantibus. Verum ubi ex aulicorum quorundam amicorum monitione insidias in caput quoque suum intellexit minus quam in patris intentatas, in exilium in Gualiam abiit (Hector Boethius, Scotorum historia 12.15).

Talia refert Georgius Buchananus:

Primum suae immanitatis impetum in Banchonem regiae caedis socium coniecti. De hoc vulgabatur sors per maleficos edita, fore ut eius posteritas aliquando regno potiretur. Igitur veritus ne homo potens et industrius, et regio iam sanguine imbutus exemplum ab ipso propositum imitaretur, eum cum filio ad coenam familiariter vocatum curat redeuntem per insidias interimendum, veluti per tumultum repente ortum. Fleanchus filius per tenebras ignotus evasit insidias. Ab amicis autem admonitus patrem a rege dolo caesum suam quoque vitam peti, occultus in Valliam profugit (Georgius Buchananus, Rerum Scoticarum historia (1582) 7.8).

Talia Raphael Holinshed:

The woords also of the three weird sisters, would not out of his mind, which as they promised him the kingdome, so likewise did they promise it at the same time vnto the posteritie of Banquho. He willed therefore the same Banquho with his sonne named Fleance, to come to a supper that he had prepared for them, which was in déed, as he had deuised, present death at the hands of certeine murderers, whom he hired to execute that déed, appointing them to meete with the same Banquho and his sonne without the palace, as they returned to their lodgings, and there to slea them, so that he would not haue his house slandered, but that in time to come he might cleare himselfe, if anie thing were laid to his charge vpon anie suspicion that might arise. It chanced yet by the benefit of the darke night, that though the father Banquho is slaine, the sonne yet by the helpe of almightie God reseruing him to better fortune, escaped that danger: and afterwards having some inkeling (by the admonition of some friends which he had in the court) how his life was sought no lesse than his fathers, who was slaine not by chancemedlie (as by the handling of the matter Makbeth woould haue had it to appeare) but euen vpon a prepensed deuise: wherevpon to auoid further perill he fled into Wales (Raphael Holinshed, Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland (2a ed. 1587) vol. 5 pars 1).

Haec res Gulielmus Shakesperius in ludo scaenico suo Macbeth inseruit, anno 1613 docto, anno 1623 divulgato. Shakesperius ipse addidit (act. 3 sc. 4) spectrum Banchonis nuper mortui in ipsa cena irrupisse locumque usurpavisse ubi Macbethus sedere voluit. Idem episodium haud mutatum in recensione fabulae a Gulielmo Davenant anno 1674 docta ostenditur. Talis cena et in opera lyrica Iosephi Verdi Macbeth, Florentiae anno 1847 docta, reperitur; ibi Domina Macbeth scolium vel brindisi cantitat (incipit "Si colmi il calice di vino eletto").

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