Caedes in navi Zong

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"Navis servorum" (The Slave Ship), a Iosepho Turner picta, argumento ex caede Zong capto[1]

Caedes in navi Zong fuit internecio 133 servorum Africanorum a nautis Zong navis servorum diebus post diem 29 Novembris 1781 facta.[comm. 1] Syndicatus venalicius Gregson, Liverpolii situs, qui navem tenebat, ea in commercio servorum Atlantico utebatur. Ex consuetudine talium societatum, cautionem pro servis praestiterat (pecunia data de iacturis servorum sarciendis caverat). Cum post errores naviagtionis magna pars aquae potabilis consumpta esset, nautae servos in mare proiecerunt ut submergerentur, partim ad nautas servandas, partim ad pecuniam pro servis datam recipiendam, ne argentum perderent propter servos qui aquâ carentes in navi mortui essent.

Postquam navis in Black River portum Iamaicensem venit, possessores eius a cautionis praebitoribus pecuniam pro iacturis servorum postulaverunt. Illi cum pendere recusavissent, a navis possessoribus in iudicium vocati sunt. In causa Gregson v Gilbert (1783; 3 Doug. KB 232) iudicatum est interfectionem servorum aliquando legitimam esse et praebitores cautionis pro mortuis servis pendere debere. Deinde in appellatione iudex principalis, comes Mansfeldensis, contra possessores navis iudicavit propter nova indicia quae culpam navarchi et nautarum demonstraret.

Post primum iudicium, Olaudah Equiano libertinus nuntium de caede adversario servitutis Granville Sharp, qui frustra laboravit ut nautae homicidii accusarentur. Propter disceptationem legalem, fama de caede late divulgata est, saeculo XVII exeunte, saeculo XIX ineunte motum abolitionismi excitans, cui res Zong fuit signum immanitatis venalicii. Societas ad abolitionem venalicii efficiendam anno 1787 condita est. Anno sequenti Parlamentum Britannicum primam legem de venalicio tulit, quae numerum servorum in una nave permissum determinavit. Deinde anno 1791 Parlamentum prohibuit ne societates cautionis pecuniam possessoribus navium pro servis eiectis redderent.

Caedes in navi Zong scriptores et artifices ad opera creanda movit. Londinii anno 2007 commemmorata est inter conventus qui Actum de abolitione venalicii anni 1807 celebraverunt. Monumentum de servis in Zong interfectis ad flumen Black Iamaicae erectum est.[2]

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

Commentarii[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Exactum mortuum numerum nescimus, sed Iacobus Kelsall, primus praefectus (first mate) Zong, deinde dixit "maximus numerus submersorum fuit in toto 142" (apud Lewis 2007, p. 364, prolata).

Fontes[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Burroughs 2010, p. 106.
  2. "The Zong case study", Understanding Slavery Initiative website, 2011

Bibliography[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Boime, Albert (1990). "Turner's Slave Ship: The Victims of Empire". Turner Studies 10 (1): 34–43 
  • Burroughs, R. (2010). "Eyes on the Prize: Journeys in Slave Ships Taken as Prizes by the Royal Navy". Slavery & Abolition 31 (1): 99–115 
  • Drescher, S. (2012). "The Shocking Birth of British Abolitionism". Slavery & Abolition 33 (4): 571–593 
  • Krikler, Jeremy (2007). "The Zong and the Lord Chief Justice". History Workshop Journal 64 (1): 29–47 
  • Krikler, Jeremy (2012). "A Chain of Murder in the Slave Trade: A Wider Context of the Zong Massacre". International Review of Social History 57 (3): 393–415 
  • Lewis, A. (2007). "Martin Dockray and the Zong: A Tribute in the Form of a Chronology". Journal of Legal History 28 (3): 357–370 
  • Lovejoy, P. E. (2006). "Autobiography and Memory: Gustavus Vassa, alias Olaudah Equiano, the African". Slavery & Abolition 27 (3): 317–347 
  • Oldham, James (2007). "Insurance Litigation Involving the Zong and Other British Slave Ships, 1780–1807". Journal of Legal History 28 (3): 299–318 
  • Rupprecht, A. (2007). "'A Very Uncommon Case': Representations of the Zong and the British Campaign to Abolish the Slave Trade". Journal of Legal History 28 (3): 329–346 
  • Rupprecht, A. (2007). "Excessive Memories: Slavery, Insurance and Resistance". History Workshop Journal 64 (1): 6–28 
  • Rupprecht, Anita (2008). "A Limited Sort of Property: History, Memory and the Slave Ship Zong". Slavery & Abolition 29 (2): 265–277 
  • Swaminathan, S. (2010). "Reporting Atrocities: A Comparison of the Zong and the Trial of Captain John Kimber". Slavery & Abolition 31 (4): 483–499 
  • Walvin, James (2011). The Zong: A Massacre, the Law and the End of Slavery. New Haven & London: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-12555-9 
  • Webster, Jane (2007). "The Zong in the Context of the Eighteenth-Century Slave Trade". Journal of Legal History 28 (3): 285–298 
  • Weisbord, Robert (August 1969). "The case of the slave-ship Zong, 1783". History Today 19 (8): 561–567 
  • Wood, Marcus (2000). Blind Memory: Visual Representations of Slavery in England and America, 1780–1865. Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-5446-4