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Bellum Hispano-Americanum

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Adumbratio satirica Hispanica in La Campana de Gràcia prolata (1896), facta "Oncle Sam" (Civitatum Foederatarum) erga Cubam reprehendit. Verba infra imaginem: "Keep the island so it won't get lost."

Bellum Hispano-Americanum (Hispanice Guerra hispano-estadounidense) fuit pugna ab Hispania et Civitatibus Foederatisanno 1898 decertata, exitus interventus Americani in Bello Libertate Cubano. Impetus Americani in Pacificas possessiones Hispanicas Civitates Foederatas in Rebus Novis Philippinicis et ad ultimum ad Bellum Philippino-Americanum implicaverunt.[1]

Navis Maine in portu Havanae submersa.
Seneca, navis vecturae Americana, navis conducta quae copias ad Portum Divitem et Cubam transvexit.

Rebelliones contra regimen Hispanicum nonnullos annos in Cuba factae erant. Ante bellum rite conflatum, rumores belli pervagati erant, ut in Re Virginia anno 1873. Decennio autem 190 exeunte, opinio Americana per propaganda anti-Hispanica a Iosepho Pulitzer, Gulielmo Randolph Hearst, et aliis scriptoribus actorum moto agitabatur, quae per flavam diurnariorum artem Hispanicam Cubanae administrationem reprehenderunt. Post Maine ('Cenomannicam'), navem proelii Americanam in Portu Havanae arcane depressam, stimuli civici ex Factione Democratica et certis industrialistis administrationem Gulielmi McKinley, praesidis Republicani, in bellum quod evitare volebat impulerunt.[2] Compromissum, ab Hispania petitum a Civitatibus Foederatis reiectum est, quae propositionem ultimam, dicionem Cubae deditam flagitantem, Hispaniae miserant. Primum Matritum, tum Vasingtonia bellum denuntiavit.[3]

Principalis res fuit libertas Cubana, sed bellum, quod decem tantum hebdomades duravit, in Caribico et Oceano Pacifico etiam certatum est. Maritima Civitatum Foederatarum potestas certa fuit, sinens ut expeditionariae Civitatum Foederatarum copiae e nave in Cubam exirent contra praesidium iam ob impetus rebelles Cubanos per civitatem claudicatum et a febre flava debilitatum.[4] Copiae Civitatum Foederatarum, exercitu plus valentes, cum sociis Cubanis et Philippinis, fecerunt ut Sanctus Iacobus Cubanus et Manila se dederent, contra fortitudinem nonnullarum peditatus Hispanici unitatum et ferocem locorum sicut Collis Sancti Ioannis defensionem (Pérez 1998:89).[5] Duabus classibus obsoletis Hispanicis in Proelio Sancti Iacobi Cubae et Proelio Sinus Manilensis depressis, et classi tertia et recentiori ad Europam ad protegenda litora Hispanica revocata, Matritum pacem petivit.[6]

Theatrum Pacificum Belli Hispano-Americani.
Cristóbal Colón, navis generis armored cruiser, quae per Proelium Sanctiacobi Cubae die 3 Iulii 1898 interiit.
"Charge of the 24th and 25th Colored Infantry and Rescue of Rough Riders at San Juan Hill, July 2, 1898" Proelium Collis Sancti Ioannis depingit.

Exitus fuit Foedus Lutetiense (1898), Civitatibus Foederatis prosperrimum, per quod Hispania potestatem et dicionem Americanam in Cubam sivit, atque imperium continuum coloniale in Portum Divitem, Guamam, et Philippinas concessit.[7] Clades et ruina Imperii Hispanici nationalem Hispaniae animum penitus percussit, perfectamque instigavit investigationem philosophicam et artisticam societatis Hispanicae, Aetas '98 appellatae. Civitates Foederatae vicissim nonnullas possessiones insulares per orbem terrarum distributas, atque amaram de sapientia expansionismi disceptationem adeptae sunt.[8] Bellum quinquaginta duos annos coepit post Bellum Mexicanum coeperat, et unum manet ex quinque bellis Americanis quae a Congressu rite declarata sunt.

Nexus interni

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Nonnulli historici recentiores latius malunt nomen ad amplectendam pugnam in Cuba et Insulis Philippinis. Exempla: Beede 1994; Bouvier 2001; Pérez 1998; Schoonover 2005.
  2. Beede 1994:148.
  3. Beede 1994:120.
  4. "In the larger view, the Cuban insurrection had already brought the Spanish army to the brink of defeat. During three years of relentless war, the Cubans had destroyed railroad lines, bridges, and roads and paralyzed telegraph communications, making it all but impossible for the Spanish army to move across the island and between provinces. [The] Cubans had, moreover, inflicted countless thousands of casualties on Spanish soldiers and effectively driven Spanish units into beleaguered defensive concentrations in the cities, there to suffer the further debilitating effects of illness and hunger."
  5. Military Book Reviews, www.strategypage.com.
  6. Dyal 1996:108–109.
  7. The World of 1898: The Spanish–American War
  8. George C. Herring, From Colony to Superpower: U.S. Foreign relations since 1776 (2008), capitulum 8.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Expeditio Sanctiacobi Cubae (1898).
Iulius Cambon, legatus Francicus in Civitatibus Foederatis, memorandum sanctionis pro Hispania subscribit.
Folium murale petitionis anni 1900.
Segregatio in militia Civitatum Foederatarum, 1898.
  • American Peace Society. 1898. The Advocate of Peace. American Peace Society.
  • Bailey, Thomas Andrew. 1961. The American Pageant: A History of the Republic. Heath.
  • Baycroft, Timothy, et Mark Hewitson. 2006. What Is a Nation?: Europe 1789–1914. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199295753.
  • Beede, Benjamin R., ed. 1994. The War of 1898 and U.S. Interventions, 1898–1934. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780824056247.
  • Bergad, Laird W. 1978. Agrarian History of Puerto Rico, 1870-1930. Latin American Research Review 13(3):63-94.
  • Botero, 2001. Ambivalent embrace: America's troubled relations with Spain from the Revolutionary War to the Cold War. Contributions to the study of world history, 78. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780313315701.
  • Bouvier, Virginia Marie. 2001. Whose America?: the war of 1898 and the battles to define the nation. Praeger. ISBN 9780275967949.
  • Brune, Lester H., et Richard Dean Burns. 2003. Chronological History of U.S. Foreign Relations: 1607–1932. Chronological History of U.S. Foreign Relations, 1, ed. Richard Dean Burns. Ed. 2a. Routledge. ISBN 9780415939140. ISBN 9780415939157.
  • Campbell, W. Joseph. 2001. Yellow Journalism: Puncturing the Myths, Defining the Legacies. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0275966860.
  • Carr, Raymond. 1982. Spain, 1808–1975. Clarendon Press. ISBN 0198221282.
  • Carreras, Albert, et Xavier Tafunell. 2004. Historia económica de la España Contemporánea. Crítica. ISBN 9788484325024.
  • Cooling, Benjamin Franklin. 2007. USS Olympia: Herald of Empire. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 9781591141266.
  • Dyal, Donald H., Brian B. Carpenter, et Mark A. 1996. Historical Dictionary of the Spanish American War. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0313288526.
  • Dolan, Edward F. 2001. The Spanish–American War. Twenty-First Century Books. ISBN 9780761314530.
  • Gatewood, Willard B. 1975. Black Americans and the White Man's Burden, 1898–1903. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0252004752.
  • Gaudreault, André. 2009. American cinema, 1890–1909: Themes and Variations. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 9780813544434.
  • Hendrickson, Kenneth E., Jr. 2003. The Spanish–American War. Greenwood.
  • Lacsamana, Leodivico Cruz. 2006. Philippine History and Government. Phoenix Publishing House. ISBN 9789710618941.
  • Levy, Jack S., et William R. Thompson. 2010. Causes of War. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 9781405175593.
  • Millis, Walter. 1979. The Martial Spirit. Ayer Publishing. ISBN 9780405118661.
  • Montoya, Arthur. 2011. America's Original Sin: Absolution & Penance. Xlibris Corporation. ISBN 9781462844340.
  • Negrón-Muntaner, Frances. 2004. Boricua Pop: Puerto Ricans and the Latinization of American Culture. NYU Press. ISBN 9780814758182.
  • Offner, John L. 1992. An Unwanted War: the Diplomacy of the United States and Spain over Cuba, 1895–1898.
  • Offner, John L. 2004. McKinley and the Spanish–American War. Presidential Studies Quarterly 34(1):50–61. ISSN 03604918. doi:10.1111/j.1741-5705.2004.00034.x.
  • Parker, John H. 2003. The Gatlings at Santiago. Indypublish.com. ISBN 9781404381377.
  • Pérez, Louis A. 1998. The War of 1898: The United States and Cuba in History and Historiography. UNC Press Books. ISBN 9780807847428.
  • Pérez, Louis A. 2003. Cuba and the United States: Ties of Singular Intimacy. Athenis Georgiae: University of Georgia Press.
  • Pérez, Louis A. 2008. Cuba in the American Imagination: Metaphor and the Imperial Ethos. UNC Press Books.
  • Rogers, Robert F. 1995. Destiny's Landfall: A History of Guam. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978082481678.
  • Roosevelt, Theodore. 1899. The Rough Riders. Novi Eboraci: Charles Scribner's Sons.
  • Santamarina, Juan C. 2000. The Cuba Company and the Expansion of American Business in Cuba, 1898-1915. The Business History Review 74(1):41-83.
  • Smith, Mark. 1995. The Political Economy of Sugar Production and the Environment of Eastern Cuba, 1898-1923. Environmental History Review 19(4):31-48.
  • Smithsonian Institution. 2005. The Price of Freedom: Americans at War: Spanish American War. National Museum of American History. ISBN 9780974420233.
  • Smythe, Ted Curtis. 2003. The Gilded Age Press, 1865–1900. Praeger. ISBN 9780313300806.
  • Tone, John Lawrence. 2006. War and Genocide in Cuba 1895–1898. Recognitio interrelialis.
  • Trask, David F. 1996. The war with Spain in 1898. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 9780803294295.
  • Tucker, Spencer. 2009. The encyclopedia of the Spanish–American and Philippine–American wars: a political, social, and military history. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781851099511.
  • Wionzek, Karl-Heinz. 2000. Germany, the Philippines, and the Spanish–American War: four accounts by officers of the Imperial German Navy. National Historical Institute.
  • Wolff, Leon. 1961. Little Brown Brother: How the United States Purchased and Pacified the Philippine Islands at the Century's Turn. Wolff Productions. ISBN 9781582882093.

Bibliographia addita[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Barnes, Mar. 2010. The Spanish–American War and Philippine Insurrection, 1898–1902: An Annotated Bibliography. Routledge Research Guides to American Military Studies.
  • Bradford, James C. ed. 1993. Crucible of Empire: The Spanish–American War and Its Aftermath.
  • Cirillo, Vincent J. 2004. Bullets and Bacilli: The Spanish–American War and Military Medicine.
  • Corbitt, Duvon C. 1963. Cuban Revisionist Interpretations of Cuba's Struggle for Independence. Hispanic American Historical Review 32(Aug.): 395–404. JSTOR.
  • Cosmas, Graham A. 1971. An Army for Empire: The United States Army and the Spanish–American War.
  • Crapol, Edward P. 1992. Coming to Terms with Empire: The Historiography of Late-Nineteenth-Century American Foreign Relations. Diplomatic History 16:573–597.
  • Cull, N. J., D. Culbert, et D. Welch. 2003. Spanish–American War. In Propaganda and Mass Persuasion: A Historical Encyclopedia, 1500 to the Present, 378–379.
  • Daley, L. 2000. Canosa in the Cuba of 1898. Los últimos días del comienzo: Ensayos sobre la guerra. Ed. B. E. Aguirre et E. Espina. Sanitago de Chile: RiL Editores. ISBN 9562841154.
  • DeSantis, Hugh. 1981. The Imperialist Impulse and American Innocence, 1865–1900. In American Foreign Relations: A Historiographical Review, ed. Gerald K. Haines et J. Samuel Walker, 65–90.
  • Dobson, John M. 1988. Reticent Expansionism: The Foreign Policy of William McKinley.
  • Feuer, A. B. 1995. The Spanish–American War at Sea: Naval Action in the Atlantic. Editio interretialis.
  • Field, Jr., James A. 1978. American Imperialism: The Worst Chapter in Almost Any Book. American Historical Review 83(Iun.): 644–668. JSTOR.
  • Freidel, Frank. 1958. The Splendid Little War. ISBN 0739423428.
  • Fry, Joseph A. 1979. William McKinley and the Coming of the Spanish–American War: A Study of the Besmirching and Redemption of an Historical Image. Diplomatic History 3:77–97.
  • Fry, Joseph A. 1996. From Open Door to World Systems: Economic Interpretations of Late-Nineteenth-Century American Foreign Relations. Pacific Historical Review 65(Maio): 277–303.
  • Foner, Philip. 1972. The Spanish–Cuban–American War and the Birth of American Imperialism, 1895–1902.
  • Funston, Frederick. 1911. Memoirs of Two Wars, Cuba and Philippine Experiences. Novi Eboraci: Charles Scribner's Sons.
  • Gould, Lewis. 1980. The Spanish–American War and President McKinley. Pars et invesitgatio textualis.
  • Hamilton, Richard. 2006. President McKinley, War, and Empire.
  • Harper's Pictorial History of the War with Spain. Liber reimpresus: Forgotten Books.
  • Harrington, Fred H. 1935. The Anti-Imperialist Movement in the United States, 1898–1900. Mississippi Valley Historical Review 22(2):211–230. In JSTOR.
  • Harrington, Peter, et Frederic A. Sharf. 1998. "A Splendid Little War": The Spanish–American War, 1898. The Artists' Perspective. Londinii: Greenhill.
  • Herring, George C. 2008. From Colony to Superpower: U.S. Foreign Relations Since 1776.
  • Hoganson, Kristin. 1998. Fighting For American Manhood: How Gender Politics Provoked the Spanish–American and Philippine–American Wars.
  • Holbo, Paul S. 1967. Presidential Leadership in Foreign Affairs: William McKinley and the Turpie-Foraker Amendment. The American Historical Review 72(4):1321–1335. doi:10.2307/1847795.
  • Keller, Allan. 1969. The Spanish–American War: A Compact History.
  • Killblane, Richard E. 1998. Assault on San Juan Hill. Military History 15(2).
  • LaFeber, Walter. 1963. The New Empire: An Interpretation of American Expansion, 1865–1898.
  • Leeke, Jim. 2009. Manila and Santiago: The New Steel Navy in the Spanish–American War.
  • Linderman, Gerald F. 1974. The Mirror of War: American Society and the Spanish–American War.
  • Maass, Matthias. 2007. When Communication Fails: Spanish–American Crisis Diplomacy 1898. Amerikastudien 5(4):481–493.
  • May, Ernest. 1961. Imperial Democracy: The Emergence of America as a Great Power.
  • McCartney, Paul T. 2006. American National Identity, the War of 1898, and the Rise of American Imperialism.
  • McCook, Henry Christopher. 1899. The Martial Graves of Our Fallen Heroes in Santiago de Cuba. G. W. Jacobs & Co.
  • Mellander, Gustavo A. 1971. The United States in Panamanian Politics: The Intriguing Formative Years. Danville Illinoesiae: Interstate Publishers. OCLC 138568.
  • Mellander, Gustavo A., et Nelly Maldonado Mellander. 1999. Charles Edward Magoon: The Panama Years. Río Piedras Portus Divitis: Editorial Plaza Mayor. ISBN 1563281554. OCLC 42970390.
  • Miller, Richard H., ed. 1970. American Imperialism in 1898: The Quest for National Fulfillment'
  • Millis, Walter. 1931. The Martial Spirit: A Study of Our War with Spain.
  • Morgan, H. Wayne. 1965. America's Road to Empire: The War with Spain and Overseas Expansion.
  • Muller y Tejeiro, Jose. 1898. Combates y Capitulacion de Santiago de Cuba. Matriti: Marques. Anglice conversus a Parte Classis Civitatum Foederatarum.
  • O'Toole, G. J. A. 1984. The Spanish War: An American Epic—1898.
  • Paterson. Thomas G. 1996. United States Intervention in Cuba, 1898: Interpretations of the Spanish–American–Cuban–Filipino War. The History Teacher 29(3):341–361. JSTOR.
  • Pérez, Jr., Louis A. 1989. The Meaning of the Maine: Causation and the Historiography of the Spanish–American War. The Pacific Historical Review 58(3):293–322. doi:10.2307/3640268.
  • Pérez Jr., Louis A. 1998. The War of 1898: The United States and Cuba in History and Historiography. University of North Carolina Press.
  • Pratt, Julius W. 1936 The Expansionists of 1898.
  • Schoonover, Thomas. 2003. Uncle Sam's War of 1898 and the Origins of Globalization.
  • Tone, John Lawrence. 2006. War and Genocide in Cuba, 1895–1898.
  • Smith, Ephraim K. 1993. William McKinley's Enduring Legacy: The Historiographical Debate on the Taking of the Philippine Islands. In Crucible of Empire: The Spanish–American War and Its Aftermath, ed. James C. Bradford, 205–249.
  • Smith, Joseph. The Spanish–American War: Conflict in the Caribbean and the Pacific (1994)
  • Stewart, Richard W. 2004. Emergence to World Power 1898–1902. In American Military History, Volume I: The United States Army and the Forging of a Nation, 1775–1917, capitulum 15. Center of Military History, United States Army.
  • Wheeler, Joseph. 1898. The Santiago Campaign, 1898. Editio interretialis. Google.com.
  • Zakaria, Fareed. 1998. From Wealth to Power: The Unusual Origins of America's World Role.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Commons-logo.svg Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad Bellum Hispanico-Americanum spectant (Spanish–American War, Spanish-American War).

Materiae referendi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Acta diurna[recensere | fontem recensere]