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Alchemia

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Alchemista. Pictura a Carolo Spitzweg facta.

Alchemia,[1][2] sive alchimia[3] et alchymia[1][2] (a nomine Arabico الخيمياء al-ḫīmiyāʾ aut الكيمياء al-kīmiyāʾ, a Graeco χυμεία = 'ars miscendi' aut χημεία,[4] fortasse ab Aegyptio keme = 'terra nigra'),[5][6][7] est antiquus philosophiae naturalis ramus in Sina, India, mundo Musulmano, atque Europa olim tractata.[8] Qua traditionem philosophicam et protoscientificam, ut in cultura Occidentali percipitur, aliquot textus pseudepigraphi in Aegypto Graeco-Romano primis saeculis post Christum natum scripti attestantur.[9] Fons chemiae hodiernae habetur.

Alchemistae certas materias purificare, crescere, perficere conabantur.[8][10][11] Inter eorum consilia erant chrysopoeia (transmutatio metallorum turpium, sicut plumbum, in metalla nobilia, praecipue aurum[8]), inventio elixiris immortalitatis,[8] et inventio panacearum quae omnes morbos curare poterint.[12] Perfectio corporis animaeque humanae exoriri putabatur ex magno opere, ut eorum labor usitate appellabatur.[8] Coniectura lapidis philosophi fingendi cum omnibus eorum propositis varie coniungebatur.

Uti solebant alchemistae tabula smaragdina, quae magna ex parte eorum doctrina erat. Alchemiam indagantes materias novas invenerunt, in quibus erant elementa arsenicum, bismuthum, phosphorus, stibium, zincum.

Nexus interni

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. 1.0 1.1 L. A. Kraus, Kritisch-etymologisches medicinisches Lexikon, ed. tertia (Gotingae: Verlag der Deuerlich- und Dieterichschen Buchhandlung,1844).
  2. 2.0 2.1 F. J. Siebenhaar, Terminologisches Wörterbuch der medicinischen Wissenschaften, ed. secunda (Lipsiae: Arnoldische Buchhandlung, 1850).
  3. J. C. Sommerhoff, Lexicon pharmaceuticochymicum Latino-Germanicum et Gemanico-Latinum (Nürnberg: J. F. Rüdiger, 1713).
  4. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; Jones, Henry Stuart (1940). A Greek-English Lexicon. Oxford: Clarendon Press 
  5. Chemistry (etymology) (Anglice).
  6. Raja Tazi, Arabismen im Deutschen (1998), paginae 113–14.
  7. J. D. Latham, "Arabic into Medieval Latin," Journal of Semitic Studies 17 (1972): 44.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Pereira, Michela (2018). "Alchemy". In Craig, Edward. Routledge. ISBN 9780415250696 
  9. Lawrence M. Principe, The Secrets of Alchemy (Sicagi: University of Chicago Press, 2012), 9–14.
  10. Malouin, Paul-Jacques (1751), "Alchimie [Alchemy]", in Diderot; d'Alembert, Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire Raisonné des Sciences, des Arts, et des Métiers, I, Lutetiae .
  11. Linden 1996: 7, 11.
  12. "Alchemy", Dictionary.com .

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Calian, George. 2010. Alkimia Operativa and Alkimia Speculativa: Some Modern Controversies on the Historiography of Alchemy." Annual of Medieval Studies at CEU 16. Textus.
  • Eliade, Mircea. 1994. The Forge and the Crucible. State University of New York Press.
  • Forshaw, Peter J. 2013. "Chemistry, That Starry Science: Early Modern Conjunctions of Astrology and Alchemy." In Sky and Symbol, ed. Nicholas Campion et Liz Greene, Sophia Centre Press.
  • Forshaw, Peter J. 2013. "Cabala Chymica or Chemica Cabalistica: Early Modern Alchemists and Cabala." Ambix 60: 4 (4): 361–89. doi:10.1179/0002698013Z.00000000039. S2CID 170459930.
  • Holmyard, Eric John. 1931. Makers of Chemistry. Oxoniae: Clarendon Press.
  • Holmyard, Eric John. 1957. Alchemy. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 9780486262987.
  • Linden, Stanton J. 1996. Darke Hierogliphicks: Alchemy in English literature from Chaucer to the Restoration. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 9780813150178.
  • Linden, Stanton J. 2003. The Alchemy Reader: from Hermes Trismegistus to Isaac Newton. Cantabrigiae: Cambridge University Press.
  • Newman, William R., et Lawrence M. Principe. 2002. Alchemy Tried in the Fire. Sicagi: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226577029.
  • von Franz, Marie Louise. 1997. Alchemical Active Imagination. Bostoniae: Shambhala Publications. ISBN 978-0-87773-589-2.
  • Kripal, Jeffrey John, et Glenn W. Shuck. 2005. On the Edge of the Future. Bloomingtoniae: Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-34556-1.
  • Principe, Lawrence M. 2013. The secrets of alchemy. Sicagi et Londinii: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-68295-2.
  • Principe, Lawrence M., et William R. Newman. 2001. "Some Problems with the Historiography of Alchemy." In Secrets of Nature: Astrology and Alchemy in Modern Europe, ed. William R. Newman et Anthony Grafton, 385–432. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-14075-1.
  • Rampling, Jennifer M. 2020. The Experimental Fire: Inventing English Alchemy, 1300–1700. Sicagi: University of Chicago Press.
  • Rutkin, H. Darrel. 2001. "Celestial Offerings: Astrological Motifs in the Dedicatory Letters of Kepler's Astronomia Nova and Galileo's Sidereus Nuncius." In Secrets of Nature, Astrology and Alchemy in Modern Europe, ed. William R. Newman et Anthony Grafton, 133–172. Cantabrigiae Massachusettae: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-14075-1.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]