Aetas Reconstructionis

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Aetas Reconstructionis in historia Civitatum Foederatarum est omne Civitatum Foederatarum tempus historicum ab anno 1865 ad annum 1877 post Bellum Civile Americanum confectum, animum attendens ad transformationem Civitatum Foederatarum Meridianarum per refectionem civitatis et societatis ab anno 1863 ad 1877, iussu Congressus Civitatum Foederatarum.

Praesides Abrahamus Lincoln et Andreas Johnson rationes modicas ab anno 1863 ad 1865 capiebant ad civitates meridianas in integrum reducendas quam primum, cum autem Republicani Toti[2] Congressu uterentur ad consilia moderata obstruenda, rationes asperas imponendas, et iura libertorum (olim servorum) amelioranda. Johnson consilium lene erga ex-Confoederatos multo sicut consilium Lincolnianum inivit. Orationes ultimae Lincolnianae monstrant eum sustinendum suffragii ius nonnullorum libertorum favisse, quandoquidem Johnson huic contradixerit.[3]

Interpretationes Johnsonianae consiliorum Lincolnianorum obtinebant usque ad comitia Congressionalia anni 1866 in civitatibus Septentrionibus, quae facultatem Republicanis Totis dedit rationum continendarum, potestatis a rebellibus amovendae, iurumque suffragii libertis dandorum. Coniunctio Republicana potestatem in paene omnibus civitatibus meridianis exercere societatemque per liberam laboris oeconomiam statutam commutare coepit, Exercitu Civitatum Foederatarum et Ministerio Libertorum utens. Ministerium legitima libertorum iura protegebat, locationes de labore agebat, et scholas et etiam ecclesias eis statuit. Milia hominum septentrionales ad Meridiem venerunt missionarii, docentes, negotiatores, virique civilium rerum periti; quos indigenae carpetbaggers appellare solebant.

Oeconomia meridiana per bellum destructa est: Broad Street, Carolopoli Carolinae Meridianae, 1865.

Ruinosa ratio ferriviaria reficienda fuit maior finis, qui autem collapsus est cum depressio oeconomica per rempublicam omnem (Pavor anni 1873 vulgo appellatam) oeconomiam vastaret. Republicani Toti, quia Johnson Reconstructionem a Congressu administratam opposuit incommodati, accusationem praesidis fecerunt, sed haec actio uno suffragio in Senatu defecit.

"The Rail Splitter At Work Repairing the Union," politica Andreae Johnson et Abrahami Lincoln adumbratio (1865). Inscriptio sic legitur: (Johnson) Take it quietly Uncle Abe and I will draw it closer than ever; (Lincoln) A few more stitches Andy and the good old Union will be mended.
Monumentum Grandi Reipublicae Exercitui, post bellum ordinato, dicatum.
Abrahamus Lincoln, Praeses Civitatum Foederatarum sextus decimus (1861–1865).
Celebratio Manumissionis Edicti in Massachusetta, 1862.
Andreas Johnson Praeses Civitatum Foederatarum septimus decimus, 1865–1869.
Thomae Nast adumbratio editoria in Harper's Magazine (24 Octobris 1874) neces nigricolorum innocentium a KKK et Foedere Alborum admissas reprehendit.
Ruinae agri ferriviarii et domus rotundae Atlantae sub bellum finitum.
A Visit from the Old Mistress ('Salutatio veteris dominae'). Pictura Winslow Homer, 1876.

Praeses Ulixes S. Grant, Reconstructioni toti favens, tutelam Afroamericanorum in Meridie per Leges Virium a Congressu sanctorum adhibendas exercuit. Praeterea Ku Klux Klan repressit, sed altercationes ingravescentes inter carpetbaggers et scalawags (albos in Meridie natos) intra Factiones Republicanas finire non poterat. Intererea, Conservativi, ut se appellabant, cum Factione Democratica) arte coniuncti, imperium Republicanum vehementer contradicebant.[4] Arguebant esse corruptionem divulgatam a furciferis Septentrionibus admissam, nimium impensarum publicarum, et tributa saeva.

Impetum contra Republicanorum impetum efficienter fecerunt, et potestatem in quaque civitate Meridiana ante 1877 "redempta" recuperavit. Interea, publicum rationum Reconstructionis studium in Septentrionibus evanescebat, cum suffragatores bellum civile finitum servitumque mortuum esse instituerent. Politici Democratici, qui rationibus Reconstructionis vehementer repudiabant, Cameram Repraesentantium moderatam anno 1874 recupaverunt. Suffragiis electoralibus anno 1876 indefinitis et turbatis, Congressui necesse erat ultimum decretum facere. Exercitus expeditus fundamentum erat civitatum Republicanarum administrandarum; quae ex 1877 collabi coeperunt, cum exercitus secundum pactum Congressionale amoveretur ut Rutherford B. Hayes Republicanum praeses eligeretur.

Reconstructionem, quae partes magni momenti in historia iurum civilium et politicorum in Civitatibus Foederatis egit, plurimi historici putant offensionem, quia civitates Meridianae factae sunt regio pauperior et miseranda, ad agriculturam ligata, cum viri civilium rerum periti Democratici imperium per violentiam, minas, et opinionem praeiudicatam redintegrarent, libertos plenis iuribus civilibus privantes eosque a republica omnino excludentes. Ericus Foner, rerum gestarum scriptor Americanus, arguit: "Quod certum manet est offensio Reconstructionis, defectio quae nigricoloribus calamitas fuit cuius magnitudo per veras peractiones quae duraverunt obscurari non potest."[5][6]

Reditus legatorum Congressionalium[recensere | fontem recensere]

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. The First Vote. Pictura Gulielmi Waud, Harpers Weekly, 16 Novembris 1867.
  2. Anglice "Radical Republicans," ut sese appellare solebant.
  3. James M. Campbell et Rebecca J. Fraser, Reconstruction: People and Perspectives (ABC-CLIO, 2008), 15.
  4. John C. Rodrigue, Reconstruction in the Cane Fields: From Slavery to Free Labor in Louisiana's Sugar Parishes, 1862–1880 (LSU Press, 2001), 168.
  5. Anglice: "What remains certain is that Reconstruction failed, and that for blacks its failure was a disaster whose magnitude cannot be obscured by the genuine accomplishments that did endure."
  6. Eric Foner, Reconstruction: America's unfinished revolution, 1863–1877 (1988), 604; reimpressus in Francis G. Couvares, ed., Interpretations of American History, Vol. I Through Reconstruction (ed. 7a, 2000), 409.
  7. An Act to admit the State of Texas to Representation in the Congress of the United States.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Fontes secundarii[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Barney, William L. 1987. Passage of the Republic: An Interdisciplinary History of Nineteenth Century America. D. C. Heath. ISBN 0669047589.
  • Behrend, Justin. 2015. Reconstructing Democracy: Grassroots Black Politics in the Deep South after the Civil War. University of Georgia Press.
  • Blair, William. 2005. The use of military force to protect the gains of reconstruction. Civil War History 51(4).
  • Blum, Edward J. 2005. Reforging the White Republic: Race, Religion, and American Nationalism, 1865–1898.
  • Bradley, Mark L. 2009. Bluecoats and Tar Heels: Soldiers and Civilians in Reconstruction North Carolina. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 9780813125077.
  • Brogan, Hugh. 1985. The Penguin History of the United States of America. Londinii: Penguin Books. ISBN 0140134603.
  • Brown, Thomas J., ed. 2006. Reconstructions: New Perspectives on Postbellum America.
  • Cimbala, Paul Alan, Randall M.Miller, et Brooks D. Simpson. 2002. An Uncommon Time: The Civil War and the Northern Home Front. Fordham University Press. ISBN 0823221954.
  • Donald, David H., et al. 2001. Civil War and Reconstruction.
  • Du Bois, W. E. B. 1910. Reconstruction and Its Benefits. American Historical Review 15:781–799. PDF.
  • Du Bois, W. E. B. 1935. Black Reconstruction in America 1860–1880.
  • Dunning, William Archibald. 1905. Reconstruction: Political & Economic, 1865–1877. Editio interretialis.
  • Egerton, Douglas. 2014. The Wars of Reconstruction: The Brief, Violent History of America's Most Progressive Era. ISBN 9781608195664. Bloomsbury Press.
  • Etcheson, Nicole. Reconstruction and the Making of a Free-Labor South. Reviews in American History 37(2).
  • Fitzgerald, Michael W. 2007. Splendid Failure: Postwar Reconstruction in the American South.
  • Frantz, Edward O., ed. 2014. A Companion to the Reconstruction Presidents 1865–1881.
  • Fleming, Walter L. 1918. The Sequel of Appomattox, A Chronicle of the Reunion of the States.
  • Fleming, Walter L. 1905. Civil War and Reconstruction in Alabama. Editio interretialis.
  • Foner, Eric, et Olivia Mahoney. America's Reconstruction: People and Politics After the Civil War. ISBN 0807122343.
  • Foner, Eric. 1988. Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877. ISBN 0060158514.
  • Foner, Eric. 2005. Forever Free: The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction.
  • Ford, Lacy K., ed. 2005. A Companion to the Civil War and Reconstruction. Blackwell.
  • Franklin, John Hope. 1961. Reconstruction after the Civil War. ISBN 0226260798.
  • Guelzo, Allen C. 2004. Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation: The End of Slavery in America. Novi Eboraci: Simon & Schuster.
  • Harris, William C. 1997. With Charity for All: Lincoln and the Restoration of the Union.
  • Henry, Robert Selph. 1938. The Story of Reconstruction.
  • Holzer, Harold, Edna Greene Medford, et Frank J. Williams. 2006. The Emancipation Proclamation: Three Views (Social, Political, Iconographic). Louisiana State University Press.
  • Jenkins, Wilbert L. 2002. Climbing up to Glory: A Short History of African Americans during the Civil War and Reconstruction.
  • Litwack, Leon. 1979. Been in the Storm So Long.
  • McPherson, James, et James Hogue. 2009. Ordeal By Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction.
  • Milton, George Fort. 1930. The Age of Hate: Andrew Johnson and the Radicals. Editio interretialis.
  • McCarthy, Charles Hallan. 1901. Lincoln's Plan of Reconstruction. Novi Eboraci: McClure, Philips, & Company. Editio interretialis.
  • Perman, Michael. 1984.The Road to Redemption: Southern Politics, 1869–1879. Chapel Hill Carolinae Septentrionalis: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0807841412, ISBN 9780807841419.
  • Perman, Michael. 2003. Emancipation and Reconstruction.
  • Peterson, Merrill D. 1994. Lincoln in American Memory. Novi Eboraci: Oxford University Press.
  • Randall, J. G. 1953. The Civil War and Reconstruction.
  • Rhodes, James G. 1920. History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850 to the McKinley–Bryan Campaign of 1896. Vol. 6: 1865–1872; vol. 7: 1872–1877
  • Richardson, Heather Cox. 2007. West from Appomattox: The Reconstruction of America after the Civil War.
  • Simpson, Brooks D. 2009. The Reconstruction Presidents.
  • Stalcup, Brenda, ed. 1995. Reconstruction: Opposing Viewpoints. Greenhaven Press.
  • Stampp, Kenneth M. 1967. The Era of Reconstruction, 1865–1877.
  • Stampp, Kenneth M., et Leon M. Litwack, eds. 1969. Reconstruction: An Anthology of Revisionist Writings.
  • Summers, Mark Wahlgren. 2009. A Dangerous Stir: Fear, Paranoia, and the Making of Reconstruction.
  • Summers, Mark Wahlgren. 2014. The Ordeal of the Reunion: A New History of Reconstruction.
  • Thompson, C. Mildred. 1915, 2010. Reconstruction In Georgia: Economic, Social, Political 1865–1872.
  • Trefousse, Hans L. 1991. Historical Dictionary of Reconstruction. Greenwood.
  • Wagner, Margaret E., Gary W. Gallagher, et James M. McPherson. 2002. The Library of Congress Civil War Desk Reference. Novi Eboraci: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks. ISBN 1439148848.
  • Woodward, Comer Vann. 1966. Reunion and Reaction: The Compromise of 1877 and the End of Reconstruction. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195064232.
  • Woodward, Comer Vann. 1974. Responses of the Presidents to Charges of Misconduct. Novi Eboraci: Delacorte Press. ISBN 0440059232.
  • Zuczek, Richard. 2006. Encyclopedia of the Reconstruction Era. 2 vol.

Fontes primarii[recensere | fontem recensere]

Diaria et magazinae[recensere | fontem recensere]

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]