Achar

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Ars coquinaria Indica: आम का अचार ām kā acār vel mango pickle sicut in Paniaba domi confici solet

Achar,[1][2] devanagari अचार acār est categoria embammatum ex aceto seu sale sive oleo confectorum in arte coquinaria Indica saepissime adhibitorum.

Idem autem nomen, origine Persicum, de condimentis Iraniae etiam adhibetur: per exemplum mercator Anglus anno 1628 in portu Bandar Abbas missum aquam rosae, pistacia, nuces, quaerere mandatus est necnon "achar generum variorum, sed praecipue allii silvestris si ibi venundetur".[3]

Perumpāṇāṟṟuppaṭai, Tamulice saeculo III ineunte scriptum, de urbe Kāñci.[4]

Anacardia "viridia sale condita (quae confectura achar nuncupant) in cibariis adhibentur et nundinis venditantur sicut apud nos olivae conditae".[5].

Ars coquinaria Indica: आँवला का अचार āṃvalā kā acār vel gooseberry pickle (e myrobalanis emblicis confecta)
Mangae ... carpuntur etiamnum virides ac sale condiuntur ollis inclusae, valentque ad cibum cum oriza quam in aqua elixant ut grana etiamnum integra durent ac tum cum salitis mangis manducant, communi mancipiorum et plebis cibo, quibus et piscis salitus mangarum aliquando vice cum oriza servit (nam ea loco panis est). Mangae sale conditae scissione ut olivae Hispaniae albae apparent, eodem fere gustu, sed aliquantulum acidiore, absque amaritudine acerbo, maximá sunt usque ad miraculum copiá. Aliae quoque sale asperguntur, et zingibere allioque implentur. Huiusmodi mangas recheadas vocant [aut in achar], magnoque in usu sunt, non tamen ita communi ut caeterae. Lautiores quippe sunt minorisque pretii. In ollis cum aceto ac oleo salitae servantur.[6]

[7]

"... fructibus, quos poma amoris vocamus; Italis bella dona et Lusitanis poma d'oro a[p]pellantur. Certe species mandragorae est ... condiuntur quoque muria ac aceto addito et aromatibus. Quod genus conditurae communi nomine achar Indi vocant"[1]

1687. -- "Achar I presume signifies sauce. They make in the East Indies, especially at Siam and Pegu, several sorts of Achar, as of the young tops of Bamboes, &c. Bambo-Achar and Mango-Achar are most used."-<-> Dampier, i. 391.

1783. -- We learn from Forrest that limes, salted for sea-use against scurvy, were used by the Chulias (Choolia), and were called atchar (Voyage to Mergui, 40). Thus the word passed to Java, as in next quotation:

1768-71; S. H. Wilcocke tr. J. S. Stavorinus Voy. E.-Indies I. 237 . -- "When green it (the mango) is made into attjar; for this the kernel is taken out, and the space filled in with ginger, pimento, and other spicy ingredients, after which it is pickled in vinegar." -- Stavorinus, i. 237

1811 : Manuel de la cuisine, ou, L'art d'irriter la gueule p. 3: Achia ou Achiar: subst. masc. On appelle ainsi les rejettons du bambou confits en vert dans le vinaigre avec l'assaisonnement convenable} ils ressemblent à nos cornichons. Les Hollandais les apportaient autrefois des Indes orientales dans des vases de terre. Nos cuisiniers les plus savans ont fait d ’Achia le mot Chia au féminin, et disent une poularde à la Chia, ce qui veut dire une poularde rôtie servie sur des cornichons des Indes.

1866 J. Lindley & T. Moore Treasury Bot. I. 9 Achiar; an Eastern condiment, formed of the young shoots of Bambusa arundinacea.

1927 C. G. Botha Social Life in Cape Colony 57 The condiments as ‘atjar’ made from apricots or from chillies ... are too well known to dilate on.

1947 L. G. Green Tavern of Seas 65 Atjar (the red cabbage pickle of the Malays).

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. 1.0 1.1 #Bontius (1658)
  2. "celebris illius confectionis quae Achar vulgo nuncupatur": Iohannes Hill et al., Horti Malabarici pars prima (Londini, 1774) p. 26
  3. some achar of severall kinds, but espetially of wild garlicke, if there to be had. W. Foster, ed., English Factories in India 1624–1629 (Oxonii, 1909) p. 301
  4. Mudaliyar C. Rasanayagam, Ancient Jaffna (Maderaspatani: Everyman's Publishers, 1926) p. 152
  5. Versio Latina Caroli Clusii a Vicipaediano aucta, cf. Carolus Clusius, interpr., Aromatum apud Indos nascentium historia (1567) p. 140. Textus Lusitanus: ... e fazem delle quando he verde delle conserva com sal para comer (ha que chamã qua achar) e vendese na praça como azeitonas acerca de nos: Garcia de Orta, Colóquios dos simples e drogas da Índia (Goae, 1563) f. 17r
  6. Iohannes Hugonis Linscotanus, Navigatio ac itinerarium Iohannis Hugonis Linscotani in orientalem sive Lusitanorum Indiam (Hagae Comitum, 1599) p. 60. Textus antea Belgice vel Batave divulgatus: Men plucktse ooc als zy noch grown zijn, enn makender concerven af, ende meestendeel ghesouten in potten, en gebrijckense in't ghemeen om te eeten met het rijs, welck zy sieden in enckel water, dat die greyene heel blyven, en dan eetent met dese ghesouten mangas, dat den dagelijcksche cost is vande slaven en oock vande ghemeene man, ofte gesouten droogen visch inde plaets van mangas, sonder broodt: want het rijs is in die plaets van broodt. Dese gesoute mangas zijn in't opsuyden ven coluer ghelijck die Spaensche witte olyven, ende by nae vande selfde smaeck: maer zijn wat renscher, en soo bitter neet, trecken wat nae't suer. Zijn in soo groote abondantie, dat te verwonderen is. Daer zijnder andere, die worden ooc ghesouten, enn van binnen ghevult met stuerkens van groene genghber en loock ghesoden. Dese heetense mangas recheadas, ofte in achar, dese worden oock veel ghebruijckt: maer also ghemeen niet als d'ander: want zijn costelijck enn meer gheestimeert. Dese worden bewaert in potten met olye enn azijn ghesouten: Jan Huygen van Linschoten, Itinerario, Voyage ofte schipvaert (Amstelodami: Cornelis Claesz., 1596) p. 74
  7. Achar est un nom Indistanni, ou Indien, que signifie des mangues ou autres fruits confis avec de la moutarde, de l'ail, du sel, et du vinaigre à l'Indienne: François de la Boullaye-le-Gouz, Les voyages et observations (Lutetiae, 1653) p. 513

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Ambur biryani pullinum cum duobus achar (ad sinistram) unoque pachadi, in folio musae inlatum, Ambur in urbe Coromandelae
Fontes antiquiores
Eruditio
Praecepta

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]