Wallace Stevens

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Wallace Stevens (2 Octobris 18792 Augusti 1955) fuit poeta modernisticus Americanus, qui Reading in urbe Pennsylvaniae natus, Universitate Harvardiana et Schola Iurisprudentiae Novi Eboraci eruditus, plurimum suae vitae Hartfordiae Connecticutae degit, munus exsecutivum pro societate fidei de damno resarciendo interpositae sustinens. Praemium Pulitzeranum Poesis ob Collected Poems anno 1955 abstulit. Inter sua poemata notissima sunt "Anecdote of the Jar" ('Fabella urnae'), "Disillusionment of Ten O'Clock" ('Error horá decimá demptus'), "The Emperor of Ice-Cream" ('Imperator cremae glaciatae'), "The Idea of Order at Key West" ('Notio ordinis Caione Osse'), "Sunday Morning" ('Tempus matutinum diei solis'), "The Snow Man" ('Homo niveus'), et "Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird" ('Tredecim viae icteridae aspectae').

Periegesis[recensere | fontem recensere]

Domus Stevensiana Hartfordiae sita.

Stevens ab anno 1922 ad annum 1940 iter ad Caionem Os Floridae frequenter fecit, in Casa Marina usitate commoratus, deversorio in litore Oceani Atlantici sito. Insulam primum Ianuario 1922 visitavit cum iter commercii faceret. "Locus est paradisus," ad Elsie uxorem scripsit: "tempestate mediae aestatis, caelo sereno et caerulissimo, mari caeruleo et viride praeter quod umquam vidisti."[1][2] Momentum Caionis Os in poesin Stevensianam in multis poematibus in Harmonium et Ideas of Order videtur, in suis primis congeriebus prolatis.[3] Mense Februario 1935, Stevens in poetam Robertum Frost in Casa Marina incidit. Poetae inter se iracunde disputabant, et Frost dixit Stevens fuisse ebrium seque non idonee gerere.[4] Proximo anno, Stevens ut dicitur Ernestum Hemingway in convivio domi in via Waddell amici mutui Caione Osse oppugnavit[5]: Stevens manum fregit, ut videtur ob maxillam Hemingwayanam ictam, et ad pavimentum ab Hemingway identidem deiectus est.[6] Anno 1940, Stevens ultimum iter ad Caionem Os fecit; Frost in Casa Marina iterum commorabatur, et poetae iterum inter se iracunde disputaverunt.[7]

Poesis[recensere | fontem recensere]

Stevens est exemplum poetae iam senex cum multum sui operis proferret. Sua prima editio maior, quattuor poemata ex sequentia "Phases" in Poetry Novembre 1914 prolata,[8] scripta est cum triginta quinque annos egit, quamquam Stevens cum discipulus in Collegio Harvardiano esset, poemata composuerat sonnetasque cum Georgio Santayana dederat et acceperat, familiari per multum suae vitae. Multa suorum operum canonicorum post annum aetatis suae quinquagensimum scripta sunt. Secundum Haroldum Bloom, criticum litterarium qui Stevens "optimum et representativissimum" illius temporis poetam Americanum existimavit,[9] nemo scriptor Occidentalis post Sophoclen tam serius ingenio artificis floruit. Helena Vendler dicit tres esse modos distinctos in eius poematibus longis: elatio voluptaria, stupor, et haesitantia inter elationem et stuporem.[10] Ea etiam dicit eius poesin a picturis Pauli Klee et Pauli Cezanne magnopere motam fuisse:

Stevens in picturis amborum Pauli Klee—qui pictor carissimus fuit—et Cézanne vidit genus operis quod ipse ut poeta modernisticus facere voluit. Klee symbola excogitaverat. Klee pictor recte realisticus non est, quin in eius picturis plenus subtilium et ingeniosarum et iocosarum realitatis proiectionum. Picturae saepe sunt perplexae vel plenae aenigmatum, et Stevens id quoque amavit. Quod Stevens in Cézanne dilexit fuit mundi deminutionem, ut dicamus, ad paucas res monumentales.[11][12]

Primus poesis liber Stevensianus, volumen inventionis rococo, Harmonium appellatum, anno 1923 prolatus est. Stevens duo additos poesis libros maiores per decennia 192 et 193, et tres decennio 195 produxit. Annuum Nationale Librorum Arbitrium Poesis bis accepit: anno 1951 pro The Auroras of Autumn[13][14] et anno 1955 pro Collected Poems.[15][16]

Imaginatio et realitas[recensere | fontem recensere]

Stevens, cuius opera sunt philosophica et in contemplatione versata, poeta notionum penitus est.[9] "Poema intellegentiae resistere debet" scripsit, "paene feliciter,"[17] Quod ad coniunctionem sensus et mundi in opus Stevensianum spectat, cogitatio" pro conscientia non valet, neque est "realitas" eadem res ac mundus qui extra mentes nostros fit. Realitas est opus cogitationis dum mundum format. Quoniam ea constanter mutat dum rationes mundi percepti nobis ingeniose satisficientes invenire conamur, realitas est actio, non res immobilis. Realitatem appropinquamus minutatim intellegentes, partes orbis terrarum in unum locum cogentes ut cohaerere viderentur. Intellegere mundum est cosmotheoriam per excogitationem strenue exercendam construere. Quod non est res arida et philosophica, sed negotium vehemens, ut ordinem et significationem inveniamus. Sic scripsit Stevens in The Idea of Order at Key West ('Notio ordinis Caione Os'),

Verba Anglica Verba Latine reddita

Oh! Blessed rage for order, pale Ramon,
The maker's rage to order words of the sea,
Words of the fragrant portals, dimly-starred,
And of ourselves and of our origins,
In ghostlier demarcations, keener sounds.[18]

O beatam ordinis rabiem! Ramone pallide,
fabricatoris rabies ad verba marina ordinanda,
verba portarum suaveolentium, obscure stellatarum,
et nostri et nostrarum originum,
in terminis cadaverosioribus, sonis subtilioribus.

Stevens in libro Opus Posthumous scribit: "Fide Deo relictá, poesis est natura quae eius locum redemptionis vitae habet."[19] [20] Sed cum poeta fictionem reperire conatur quae in loco deum amissorum substitui potest, in difficultatem statim incidit: recta realitatis scientia fieri non potest.

Stevens itaque subicit nos vivere in ambiguitate inter formas quas habitant dum mundus nos agit, notionesque ordinis quas nostra cogitatio in mundum imponit. Mundus nos in nostris actionibus usitatissimis movet: "Vestis mulieris ex Lhassa, / in suo loco, / est elementum illius loci quod videri non potest / aspectabile factum."[21][22] Similiter, si ollam in colle in Tennesia poneremus, ordinem in terram imponeremus.

Stevens in commentario "Imagination as Value" dicit: "Veritas videtur quod per notiones excogitationis vivimus antequam ratio eas instituit."[23][24] Cogitatio est modus quo nos inscientes aequabilia vitae exemplaria concipimus, cum ratio est quomodo nos scientes haec exemplaris concipimus.

Fictio suprema[recensere | fontem recensere]

Stevens dicit: "Excogitatio vim perdit cum ad quod reale est non iam adhaereat. Cum ad res irreales adhaereat et quod non est reale amplificat, quamquam eius primus effectus extraordinarius sit, effectus ille est maximus effectus quem umquam habebit."[25][26]

Stevens omnem per suum cursum poeticum constanter rogare solebat quid de mundo cogitare debemus, quoniam nostrae veteres religionis notiones non iam sufficiunt. Suum responsum notione supreme fiction ('fictionis supremae') innititur, quae pro fictiva notionis Dei substitutione erit, falsa agnota, sed libenter credita.[27] In hoc exemplo, ex "A High-Toned Old Christian Woman," poemate satirico, Stevens notiones realitatis tractat, statim faciles, sed ad ultimum non idoneas:

Verba Anglica Verba Latine reddita

Poetry is the supreme Fiction, madame.
Take the moral law and make a nave of it
And from the nave build haunted heaven. Thus,
The conscience is converted into palms
Like windy citherns, hankering for hymns.
We agree in principle. That’s clear. But take
The opposing law and make a peristyle,
And from the peristyle project a masque
Beyond the planets. Thus, our bawdiness,
Unpurged by epitaph, indulged at last,
Is equally converted into palms,
Squiggling like saxophones. And palm for palm,
Madame, we are where we began.[28]

Poesis est fictio suprema, mea domina.
Fas sume et ex eo navem fac
et ex navi caelum sollicitatum aedifica. Sic,
conscientia in palmas convertitur
sicut citharae ventosae, hymnos petentes.
ratione concinimus. Id est certum. Sed cape
legem adversam et fac peristylum,
et ex peristylo personam proice
praeter planetas. Sic nostra turpitudo,
epitaphio non purgata, tandem tolerata,
in palmas pariter commutatur,
sicut saxophona sinuantes. Et palma pro palma,
Mea domina, ubi coepimus adsumus.

In "Final Soliloquy of the Interior Paramour," uno ex suis poematibus ultimis, Stevens experientiam describit notionis quae cogitationi satisfacit: "Hoc est, ergo, summus locus ad conveniendum constitutus, rendezvous accerrimum. / Nos in illa cogitatione nos conligimus, / ex omnibus lentitudinibus, in unam rem." Quam vidimus esse "lucem, potestatem, momentum mirificum," in quo nos nos oblivisci possumus, ordinem consolantem sentientes, "certa scientia, quam rendezvous ordinavit, / intra eius fines vitales, in mente."[29]

Haec scientia necessarie exstat intra mentem, quia aspectus est cogitationis qui rectam realitatis experientiam adsequi numquam potest:

Verba Anglica Verba Latine reddita

We say God and the imagination are one. . . .
How high that highest candle lights the dark.

Out of this same light, out of the central mind
We make a dwelling in the evening air,
In which being there together is enough.[29]

Dicimus Deum et cogitationem esse unam. . . .
Quam alta altissima candela obscuritatem inlustrat!

Ex eadem luce, ex media mente
domicilium in aere vespertino facimus,
in quo ibi una manere satis est.

Concludit Stevens Deum esse inventum humanum, sed perceptio rectitudinis quae diu exsistit cum notione Dei iterum inveniri posset. Haec fictio suprema nobis erit res maximi momenti sed nobis aequalis, ratio per quam Deus numquam iterum erit. Sed cum notione recta, iterum invenire possumus idem genus solatii quod in divinitate olim invenerunt: "[Stevens] quoque aestimationem definitam in perfecto realitatis contactu invenit. Solum, revera, per hanc scientiam rigidam suam mentem veram attingere potest, quae dissolventibus vitae viribus resistere potest. Quamquam mens vis valens est, res absolutas invenire non potest. Caelum hominem videntem in eius libidinosa mundi intellegentia circumiacet; omnia sua sunt pars veritatis."[30][31]

Verba Anglica Verba Latine reddita

Poetry
Exceeding music must take the place
Of empty heaven and its hymns,
Ourselves in poetry must take their place.[32]

Poesis
musicam excedens locum capere debet
caeli vacui et eius hymnorum,
Nos in poesi eorum locum capere debemus.

Momentum litterarium[recensere | fontem recensere]

Iudices litterarii et alii poetae Stevens ex initio laudare solebant. Hart Crane ad amicum anno 1919 scripsit, "Est vir cuius opus facit ut paveamus."[33] Societas Fundata Poesis dicit: "Stevens ante 1950 fere habebatur usus ex maximi Americae poetis hodiernis, artifex cuius abstractiones definitae momentum grave aliis scriptoribus intenderunt."[34][35] Nonnulli critici, sicut Randall Jarrell[36] et Yvor Winters,[37] primum opus Stevensianum laudaverunt, sed sua poemata posteriora, abstrusius et magis philosophica reprehenderunt.

Haroldus Bloom, Helena Vendler, et Franciscus Kermode sunt inter criticos qui statum Stevensianum in canone Occidentali instituerunt ut unus ex personis gravissimis Americanae poesis modernisticae saeculi vicensimi.[12] Bloom Stevens "vitalem mythologiae Americanae partem" appellavit atque Winters et Jarrell dissimilis, ultima Stevens poemata, inter quae "Poems of our Climate," citavit nonnulla ex optimis poematibus Stevensianis.[35]

Opera[recensere | fontem recensere]

Poesis[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • The Snow Man (1921)
  • Harmonium (1923)
  • Ideas of Order (1936)
  • Owl's Clover (1936)
  • The Man with the Blue Guitar (1937)
  • Parts of a World (1942)
  • Transport to Summer (1947)
  • The Auroras of Autumn (1950)
  • Collected Poems (1954)
Congeries post mortem prolatae
  • Opus Posthumous (1957)
  • The Palm at the End of the Mind (1972)
  • Collected Poetry and Prose (New York: The Library of America, 1997)
  • Selected Poems (ed. John N. Serio) (Novi Eboraci: Alfred A. Knopf, 2009)[38]

Oratio soluta[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • The Necessary Angel (commentarii, 1951)
Posthumous publications
  • Letters of Wallace James Stevens, ab Holly Stevens editae (1966)
  • Secretaries of the Moon: The Letters of Wallace Stevens & Jose Rodriguez Feo, edited by Beverly Coyle and Alan Filreis (1986)
  • Sur plusieurs beaux sujects: Wallace Stevens's Commonplace Book, edited by Milton J. Bates (1989)
  • The Contemplated Spouse: The Letter of Wallace Stevens to Elsie, edited by D.J. Bluont (2006)

Adnotationes[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Anglice: "The place is a paradise . . . midsummer weather, the sky brilliantly clear and intensely blue, the sea blue and green beyond what you have ever seen."
  2. Letters of Wallace Stevens,ab Holly Stevens selectae et editae.
  3. The Collected Poems of Wallace Stevens: "O Florida, Venereal Soil," "The Idea of Order at Key West," "Farewell to Florida."
  4. The Trouble with Robert Frost and Wallace Stevens, commentarius 14 Aprilis 2009, in situ Key West Literary Seminar.
  5. Hemingway Knocked Wallace Stevens into a Puddle and Bragged About It, commentarius 20 Martii 2008, in situ Key West Literary Seminar.
  6. Ernest Hemingway, Selected Letters 1917-1961, ed. Carlos Baker.
  7. Jay Parini, Robert Frost: A Life.
  8. Wallace Stevens (search results), Poetry Magazine.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Juliet Lapidos, "Old New Haven," The Advocate, 17 Martii 2005.
  10. Helen Vendler, On Extended Wings (Cantabrigiae: Harvard University Press, 1969), 13.
  11. Anglice: "Stevens saw in the paintings of both Paul Klee--who was his favorite painter--and Cézanne the kind of work he wanted to do himself as a Modernist poet. Klee had imagined symbols. Klee is not a directly realistic painter and is full of whimsical and fanciful and imaginative and humorous projections of reality in his paintings. The paintings are often enigmatic or full of riddles, and Stevens liked that as well. What Stevens liked in Cézanne was the reduction, you might say, of the world to a few monumental objects."
  12. 12.0 12.1 "Wallace Stevens." Voice and Visions Video Series. New York Center for Visual History, 1988.[1]
  13. Richardson, The Later Years, 378.
  14. "National Book Awards – 1951," National Book Foundation.
  15. "National Book Awards – 1955," National Book Foundation.
  16. Richardson, The Later Years, 420.
  17. Wallace Stevens, Collected Poetry and Prose (Novi Eboraci: Library of America, 1997), ed. F. Kermode et J. Richardson), 306.
  18. Stevens, Collected Poetry and Prose, supra, p. 106.
  19. Anglice: "After one has abandoned a belief in God, poetry is that essence which takes its place as life’s redemption."
  20. Wallace Stevens, Opus Posthumous (Londinii: Faber and Faber, 1990), ed. Milton J. Bates, 185.
  21. Anglice: "The dress of a woman of Lhassa, / In its place, / Is an invisible element of that place / Made visible."
  22. Stevens, Collected Poetry and Prose, 41.
  23. Anglice: "The truth seems to be that we live in concepts of the imagination before the reason has established them."
  24. Wallace Stevens, The Necessary Angel: Essays on Reality and the Imagination (Random House, 1965, ISBN 978-0-394-70278-0).
  25. Anglice: "The imagination loses vitality as it ceases to adhere to what is real. When it adheres to the unreal and intensifies what is unreal, while its first effect may be extraordinary, that effect is the maximum effect that it will ever have."
  26. Stevens, The Necessary Angel, 6.
  27. Gregory Brazeal, "The Supreme Fiction: Fiction or Fact?" Journal of Modern Literature 31(1)(2007):80.
  28. Stevens, Collected Poetry and Prose, 47.
  29. 29.0 29.1 Stevens, Collected Poetry and Prose, 444.
  30. Anglice: "[Stevens] finds, too, a definite value in the complete contact with reality. Only, in fact, by this stark knowledge can he attain his own spiritual self that can resist the disintegrating forces of life . . . . Powerful force though the mind is . . . it cannot find the absolutes. Heaven lies about the seeing man in his sensuous apprehension of the world . . . ; everything about him is part of the truth."
  31. James G. Southworth, Some Modern American Poets (Oxoniae: Basil Blackwell, 1950), 92.
  32. Stevens, Collected Poetry and Prose, supra, p. 136-37.
  33. "Wallace Stevens: Biography and Recollections by Acquaintances," Modern American Poetry.
  34. Anglice: "by the early 1950s Stevens was regarded as one of America's greatest contemporary poets, an artist whose precise abstractions exerted substantial influence on other writers."
  35. 35.0 35.1 "Wallace Stevens." Poetry Foundation Article
  36. Randall Jarrell, "Reflections on Wallace Stevens," Poetry and the Age (1953).
  37. Yvor Winters, "Wallace Stevens or the Hedonist's Progress," In Defense of Reason (1943).
  38. Pars: 'Selected Poems', a December 3, 2009 NPR commentario de Stevens.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Baird, James. 1968. The Dome and the Rock: Structure in the Poetry of Wallace Stevens.
  • Bates, Milton J. 1985. Wallace Stevens: A Mythology of Self.
  • Beckett, Lucy. 1974. Wallace Stevens.
  • Beehler, Michael. 1987. T. S. Eliot, Wallace Stevens, and the Discourses of Difference.
  • Benamou, Michel. 1972. Wallace Stevens and the Symbolist Imagination.
  • Berger, Charles. 1985. Forms of Farewell: The Late Poetry of Wallace Stevens.
  • Bevis, William W. 1988. Mind of Winter: Wallace Stevens, Meditation, and Literature.
  • Blessing, Richard Allen. 1970. Wallace Stevens' "Whole Harmonium."
  • Bloom, Harold. 1980. Wallace Stevens: The Poems of Our Climate.
  • Bloom, Harold. 1976. Figures of Capable Imagination.
  • Borroff, Marie, ed. 1963. Wallace Stevens: A Collection of Critical Essays.
  • Brazeau, Peter. 1983. Parts of a World: Wallace Stevens Remembered.
  • Brogan, Jacqueline V. 2003. The Violence Within / The Violence Without: Wallace Stevens and the Emergence of a Revolutionary Poetics.
  • Critchley, Simon. 2005. Things Merely Are: Philosophy in the Poetry of Wallace Stevens.
  • Carroll, Joseph. 1987. Wallace Stevens' Supreme Fiction: A New Romanticism.
  • Doggett, Frank. 1966. Stevens' Poetry of Thought.
  • Doggett, Frank. 1980. Wallace Stevens: The Making of the Poem.
  • Doggett, Frank, et Robert Buttel, eds. 1980. Wallace Stevens: A Celebration.
  • Kermode, Frank. 1960. Wallace Stevens.
  • Grey, Thomas. 1991. The Wallace Stevens Case: Law and the Practice of Poetry. Cantabrigiae: Harvard University Press.
  • Ehrenpreis, Irvin, ed. 1973. Wallace Stevens: A Critical Anthology.
  • Enck, John J. 1964. Wallace Stevens: Images and Judgments.
  • Filreis, Alan. 1994. Modernism from Right to Left: Wallace Stevens, the Thirties & Literary Radicalism.
  • Hines, Thomas J. 1976. The Later Poetry of Wallace Stevens: Phenomenological Parallels With Husserl and Heidegger.
  • Hockney, David. 1977. The Blue Guitar.
  • Leggett, B. J. 1992. Early Stevens: The Nietzschean Intertext.
  • Leonard, J. S., et C. E. Wharton. 1988. The Fluent Mundo: Wallace Stevens and the Structure of Reality.
  • Longenbach, James. 1991. Wallace Stevens: The Plain Sense of Things. Novi Eboraci: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195068637.
  • McCann, Janet. 1996. Wallace Stevens Revisited: The Celestial Possible.
  • Tanaka, Hiroshi. 2007. A New Attempt of an American Poet: Wallace Stevens. In Papers on British and American Literature and Culture: From Perspectives of Transpacific American Studies, ed. Tatsushi Narita, 59–68. Nagoya: Kougaku Shuppan.
  • Vendler, Helen. 1969. On Extended Wings: Wallace Stevens' Longer Poems. Harvard University Press.
  • Vendler, Helen. 1986. Wallace Stevens: Words Chosen out of Desire. Harvard University Press.
  • Woodman, Leonora. 1983. Stanza My Stone: Wallace Stevens and the Hermetic Tradition.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

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