Robertus Lowell

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Robertus Lowell in Grolier Poetry Bookshop prope Quadratum Harvardianum, 1965. Photographema ab Elsa Dorfman factum.
Schola Sancti Marci, Southborough Massachusettae.
Lowell inter recusantes Belli Vietnamiensis ad "March on the Pentagon" interfuit, 1968.

Robertus Traill Spence "Cal"[1] Lowell IV (1 Martii 191712 Septembris 1977) fuit poeta Americanus, in familia Brahmin Bostoniensium natus quae ortum in Mayflower invenire potuit. Familiares, et mortui et vivi, partes magni momenti in suis poematibus egerant. Adolescentia Bostoniae etiam sua poemata informat, quae urbe et regione Nova Anglia saepe innitur.[2]

Lowell adfirmavit: "Poetae qui me directissime moverunt . . . fuerunt Allen Tate, Elizabetha Bishop, et Gulielmus Carolus Williams. Coniunctio non verisimilis! . . . sed videre potest Bishop esse genus pontis inter formalismum Tatianum et artem non formalem Williamsianam."[3][4]

Lowell, postquam librum Life Studies anno 1959 protulerat, qui Nationale Librorum Arbitrium anno 1960 abstulerat et "novam vim ad nimiam infinitamque certaminum personalium, familiarium, psychicorum disceptationem spectantem vehementius dixit,"[5] pars motus poesis confessionalis magni momenti putabatur.[6][7] Multa autem ex suis operibus, quae themata publica et privata miscebant, se ad usitatum poesis confessionalis exemplar non conformabant. Poeta potius variis modis et formis distinctis per suum cursum uti solebat.[7]

Praemium Pulitzeranum Poesis annis 1947 et 1974, Nationale Circuli Criticorum Librorum Arbitrium anno 1977, et Arbitrium Instituti Nationalis Artium et Litterarum anno 1947 abstulit. "Late habetur unus ex poetis Americanis maximi momenti aetatis post bellum.[8][7] Biographus Paulus Mariani eum appellavit "poeta-historicus nostri temporis . . . ultimus [Americae] poetarum publicarum qui momento profuit."[9][10]

Vita[recensere | fontem recensere]

Lowell Bostoniae Massachusettae natus est, patre Imperatore Roberto Traill Spencer Lowell III, matre Charlotta Winslow. Lowelles fuerunt familia Brahmin Bostoniensium, inter cuius membra notabilia fuerunt Abbott Lawrence Lowell educator et praeses Universitatis Harvardianae; Amy Lowell poetrix; Carolus Russell Lowell maior, clericus, Socius Collegii Harvardiani, unus ex primis abolitionistis Americanis; Carolus Russell Lowell III, generalis Belli Civilis Americani et heros belli, de quo Lowell poema "Charles Russell Lowell: 1835–1864" scripsit; Franciscus Cabot Lowell, qui industriae conversionem in America insigniter promovit; Iacobus Russell Lowell, poeta et legatus; Iulianus Lowell Coolidge, mathematicus et scriptor; Percival Lowell astronomus, qui Plutonem invenit; Robertus Traill Spence Lowell, clericus et professor linguae Latinae.

Inter maiores maternos fuerunt Gulielmus Samuel Johnson, qui Constitutionem Civitatum Foederatarum subscripsit; Ionathan Edwards, theologus Calvinista (de quo Lowell in poematibus "Mr. Edwards and the Spider," "Jonathan Edwards in Western Massachusetts," "After the Surprising Conversions," et "The Worst Sinner" scripsit); Anna Hutchinsonia, praedicator et sanator Puritana; Robertus Livingston, qui inter maiores paternos etiam fuit; Thomas Dudley, alter gubernator Massachusettae colonicae; et Iacobi Chilton et Mariae Chilton filia, vectores in Mayflower. Ambo parentes fuerunt progenies Philippi Livingston, filii Roberti Livingston, quod eos consobrinos sextos fuisse significat.[11]

Lowell, infarctum cordis in taxiraeda Novi Eboraci passus, mortuus est anno 1977, cum iter ad visitandam Elizabetham Hardwick priorem uxorem faceret. Corpus in Coemeterio Stark in vico Dunbarton Novae Hantoniae sepultum est.

Opera[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Land of Unlikeness (1944)
  • Lord Weary's Castle (1946)
  • The Mills of The Kavanaughs (1951)
  • Life Studies (1959)
  • Phaedra, opus conversum (1961)
  • Imitations (1961)
  • Nathaniel Hawthorne, 1804–1864, Ohio State University Press (1964)
  • For the Union Dead (1964)
  • The Old Glory (1965)
  • The Achievement of Robert Lowell: A Comprehensive Selection of His Poems, ed. cum praefatione a William J. Martz, Scott, Foresman (1966)
  • Near the Ocean (1967)
  • R. F. K., 1925–1968 editio privatim impressa (1969)
  • Notebook 1967–1968 (1969) (res retractata et amplificata ut Notebook, 1970)
  • The Voyage and Other Versions of Poems of Baudelaire (1969)
  • Prometheus Bound ('Prometheus vinctus'), opus conversum (1969)
  • Poesie, 1940–1970 (Anglica et textus Italice conversus), Longanesi (Mediolani), (1972)
  • History (1973)
  • For Lizzie and Harriet (1973)
  • The Dolphin (1973)
  • Selected Poems (1976) (editio retractata, 1977)
  • Day by Day (1977)
  • The Oresteia of Aeschylus (1978)
  • Collected Prose (1987)
  • Collected Poems (2003)
  • Selected Poems (2006) (editio amplificata)

Adnotationes[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Nomen per ludibrium ex ambobus Calibano et Caligula ab amicis iuvenilibus datum.
  2. Ian Hamilton, Robert Lowell: A Biography (Faber & Faber, 1982).
  3. Anglice: "The poets who most directly influenced me . . . were Allen Tate, Elizabeth Bishop, and William Carlos Williams. An unlikely combination! . . . but you can see that Bishop is a sort of bridge between Tate's formalism and Williams's informal art."
  4. Stanley Kunitz, "Talk with Robert Lowell," The New York Times, 4 Octobris 1964, BR34.
  5. Anglice "featured a new emphasis on intense, uninhibited discussion of personal, family, and psychological struggles."
  6. Nationalia Librorum Arbitria, 1960.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 "Robert Lowell (1917-1977)," in Contemporary Literary Criticism, ed. Jeffrey W. Hunter (Detroiti: Gale Group, 2000), 251.
  8. Anglice: "widely considered one of the most important American poets of the postwar era."
  9. Anglice: "the poet-historian of our time . . . the last of [America's] influential public poets."
  10. Paul Mariani, Lost Puritan: A Life of Robert Lowell (Novi Eboraci: W. W. Norton & Company, 1996), 10.
  11. N. Jenkins, [1] "Charlotte Winslow and Commander Robert Traill Spence Lowell III - Relationship Chart."

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Hamilton, Ian. 1982 Robert Lowell: A Biography. Faber & Faber.
  • Lowell, Robert. 2003 Collected Poems. Novi Eboraci: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.
  • Mariani, Paul. 1996. Lost Puritan: A Life of Robert Lowell. Novi Eboraci: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0393036618.
  • Seidel, Frederick. 1961. Robert Lowell, The Art of Poetry No. 3. The Paris Review Winter-Spring.
  • Tillinghast, Richard. 1995. Robert Lowell's Life and Work: Damaged Grandeur. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0472095706, ISBN 047206570X.
  • Travisano, Thomas, et Saskia Hamilton, eds. 2008. Words in Air: The Complete Correspondence Between Elizabeth Bishop and Robert Lowell. Farrar, Strauss & Giroux.

Biographia interretialis[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • A Mania For Phrases. The Voices and Visions Series (Episodium Robert Lowell). New York Center for Visual History, 1988. [2].

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

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