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Robertus Frost

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Robertus Frost.
Robertus Frost circa 1910.
Robertus Frost anno 1959.
Robert Frost Farm in Derry, New Hampshire, ubi multa suorum poematum duxit, inter quae "Tree at My Window" et "Mending Wall."
"I had a lover's quarrel with the world." Epitaphium in sepulcro scalptum est pars poematis "The Lesson for Today."
Nota postalica Civitatum Foederatatum Robertum Frost honoravit, 1974.
Sepulcrum familiae Frostiana in Coemeterio Vetere Benningtoniano.

Robertus Lee Frost (26 Martii 187429 Ianuarii 1963) fuit poeta Americanus. Sua opera primum in Anglia antequam in America prolata sunt. Ob veritatem imitantes vitae rusticae depictiones et eius facultatem humilis sermonis Americani scribendi magnopere laudatur.[1] Sua opera saepe condiciones vitae rusticae in Nova Anglia saeculo vicensimo ineunte adhibent, quibus utuntur ad investiganda multiplicia themata socialia et philosophica. Ipse, unus ex populo gratissimis et a criticis litteraiis honoratis poetis saeculi vicensimi,[2] saepe celebratus est vivus, quattuor praemia Pulitzerana poesis accipiens, unus ex raris Civitatum Foederatarum "personis litterariis publicis, paene institutio artisticus."[3][2] Ob opera poetica Clipeum Aureum Congressionalem anno 1960 accepit.

Vita[recensere | fontem recensere]

Iuvenis[recensere | fontem recensere]

Robertus Frost Franciscopoli Californiae natus est, patre Gulielmo Prescott Frost minore, matre Isabella Moodie.[1] Mater fuit progenies Scotica, pater progenies Nicholai Frost ex Tiverton, Devoniae Angliae, qui ad Novam Hantoniam in Wolfrana anno 1634 navigaverat.

Pater fuit praeceptor et deinde editor diarii San Francisco Evening Bulletin. Quo autem die 5 Maii 1885 mortuo, familia trans continentem ad oppidum Lawrence Massachusettae migravit, sub aegide Gulielmi Frost Senioris, Roberti avi, qui inspector in pistrino fuit. Robertus diploma Scholae Superioris Lawrence anno 1892 accepit.[4] Mater se cum ecclesia Swedenborgiana consociavit et fecit ut Robertus in ea baptizari, sed adultus ecclesiam reliquit.

Frost, quamquam ob consociationem cum vita rustica notus, in urbe adolevit, et suum poema primum in magazina scholae superioris protulit. Collegium Dartmuthense tantum binos menses frequentavit. Frost domum rediit ut doceat et varia opera quaerat, inter quae matrem ut pueros doceret adiuvans, diaria prodens, et in fabrica filamentorum arciluminum carbonis mutator laborans. Haec opera ei displicuerunt, quia credebat suum munus verum esse poesis.

Adultus[recensere | fontem recensere]

Frost anno 1894 "My Butterfly. An Elegy," suum primum poema, quindecim dollariis vendidit, in editione octava Novembris magazinae New York Independent prolatum. Sibi sic placens, matrimonium Eleanorae Miriamae White proposuit, sed ea haesitabat, ut se cursum baccalareatum in Universitate Sancti Laurentii ante matrimonium finiret. Frost tum iter ad Magnam Paludem Maestam in Virginia fecit, et reditus iterum Eleanoram rogavit. Quae, nunc graduata, volens, coniuges in oppido Lawrence Massachusettae die 19 Decembris 1895 matrimonio coniuncti sunt.

Frost Collegium Harvardianum ab 1897 ad 1899 frequentavit, sed studiis ob aegritudinem desistitit.[5][6][7] Moribundus poetae avus fundum pro Roberto et Eleanorá in vico Deris Novae Hantoniae emit, ubi Robertus fundum novem annos tractabat, cum multo mane multa componeret ex poematibus quae famosa fierent. Fundo tandem deficiente, Frost ad academiam revertus est, ac Anglicam in Academia Pinkertoniana in Nova Hantonia ab 1906 ad 1911, tum in Schola Normali Novae Hantoniae (nunc Universitas Civica Plimmutensis) in vico Plimmuta Novae Hantioniae) docuit.

Frost cum familia anno 1912 ad Magnam Britanniam navigavit, se primum Beaconsfield in oppidulo extra Londinium consedens. Suus primus poematum liber, A Boy's Will, proximo anno prolatus est. In Anglia in homines magni momenti incidit, inter quos Eduardus Thomas (sodalis gregis Poetae Dymockenses appellati), T. E. Hulme, et Ezra Pound. Quamquam Pound factus est primus Americanus qui commodam libri recognitionem protulit, Frost ad ultimum conatus Poundianos ad tractandam suam prosodiam Americanam in malam partem accepit. Frost in multos suae aetatis poetas in Anglia incidit, praecipue postquam sua volumina poesis Londinii annis 1913 (A Boy's Will) et 1914 (North of Boston) prolata erant.

Magno Bello conflato, Frost ad Americam anno 1915 rediit, et fundum Franconiae Novae Hantoniae emit, ubi cursum scribendi, docendi, acroases habendi coepit. Hoc domicilium familiare fuit domus aestiva usque ad 1938. Hodie nomine The Frost Place conservatur, museum et locus conventuum poesi dicatorum. Per annos 19161920, 19231924, et 19271938, Frost Anglicam in Collegio Amherst in Massachusetta docuit, discipulos insigniter adhortans ut ei sescentos fere sonos et intonationes lingua Anglicae dictae in eorum scriptis accommodarent. Talem accessum ad linguam appellabat sonum sensualem appellavit.[8][9]

Frost anno 1924, primum ex quattuor praemia Pulitzerana abstulit ob librum New Hampshire: A Poem with Notes and Grace Notes. Alia praemia Pulitzerana comprobaverunt Collected Poems (1931), A Further Range (1937), et A Witness Tree (1943).[10]

Frost anno 1940 tractum agrorum quinque Miamiae Meridianae Floridae situs emit, quod Pencil Pines ('Pini stilorum') appellavit, ubi reliquium suae vitae hiemabat.[11] Inter suas proprietates etiam fuerunt domus in Via Brewster Cantabrigiae Massachusettae, quae hodie ad National Historic Register pertinet. Interdum Caionem Os visitavit, ubi de variis rebus cum Wallace Stevens iracunde disputavit.

Frost, quamquam numquam gradum A.B. meruerat, plus quadraginta gradus academicos honoris causa accepit, inter quos gradus ex universitatibus Princetonia, Oxonia, et Cantabrigiae, ac Frost fuit solus homo qui duos gradus honorarios ex Dartmouth College accepit. Poetá iam vivo, Schola Media Roberti Frost Fairfax in oppido Virginiae, Schola Robert L. Frost School Lawrence in oppido Massachusettae, et maxima Collegii Amherst bibliotheca ex eo appellatae sunt.

Frost anno 1960 Clipeum Aureum Congressionalem Civitatum Foederatarum accepit.[12]

Frost anno aetatis suae 86 poema notissimum "The Gift Outright" pro Preside Ioanne F. Kennedy die 20 Ianuarii 1961 inaugurato legit. Bostoniae obiit binos annos post, die 29 Ianuarii 1963. Corpus in Coemeterio Vetere Bennington in oppido Bennington Montis Viridis sepultus est. Epitaphium ultimum versum poematis "The Lesson for Today" (1942) citat: "I had a lover's quarrel with the world."

Singula[recensere | fontem recensere]

Vita poetae plena fuit sollicitudinis, doloris, damni. Anno 1885, anno poetae aetatis undecimo, pater phthisi obiit, tantum octo dollaria familiae relinquens. Mater cancro anno 1900 mortua est. Frost anno 1920 Jeanie sororem in valetudinarium committere debuit, ubi mortua est novem annos post. Morbus mentis ut videtur in familia abundabat: ipse et mater depressione passi sunt, et Irma filia in valetudinarium commissa est anno 1940. Elinor uxor tempora depressionis quoque passa est.[13]

Elinor et Robertus Frost sex liberos habuerunt: Elliot filium (1896–1904, cholera mortuum); Lesley Frost Ballantine filia (1899–1983); Carolum filium (1902–1940, qui sibi mortem conscivit); Irma filiam (1903–1967); Marjorie filiam (1905–1934, febre puerpere mox post partum mortuam); et Elinor Bettina filiam (tres dies post partum anno 1907 mortuam). Soli Lesley et Irma patrem superfuerunt. Uxor poetae, quae morbum apparatus circulatorii omnem per vitam passa erat, cancroque mammae anno 1937 adfecta, defectione cordis anno 1938 obiit.[13]

Opera[recensere | fontem recensere]

Modus et responsum criticum[recensere | fontem recensere]

Randall Jarrell, poeta et criticus, poemata Frostiana saepe laudavit, qui scripsit: "Robert Frost, cum Stevens et Eliot, mihi videtur maximus ex Americanis huius saeculi poetis. Suae virtutes sunt extraordinariae. Nemo poeta vivus tam bene de factis hominum communium scripsit; eius mirabiles monologi dramatici vel scaenae dramaticae ex intellegentia hominum quam paucis poetis fuerunt, et versibus componuntur qui, aliquando absolutam victoriam monstrantes, rhythmis verae orationis utuntur."[14] Etiam laudavit "gravitatem et probitatem Frostianas," dicens Frost praesertim esse sollertem latitudinis experientiae humanae in poematibus repraesentatae.[15]

Scripta Jarrelliana comprehendunt commentarios "Robert Frost's 'Home Burial'" (1962), qui consistit in attenta illius poematis lectione dilata, et "To The Laodiceans" (1952), in quo Jarrell poetam defendit contra criticos litterarios qui Frost accusaverat quod nimis "translaticius" et poesis modernisticae insuetus fuisset. Jarrell scripsit: "usitatae poesis Frostianae investigatae rationes sunt immanes simplificationes, distortiones, falsificationes: bene scire eius poesim debet satis, per se, ullas dispellere, et necessitatem patefacere alius viae inveniendae de operibus eius disceptare."[16] Et lectiones attentae Jarrellianae poematis "Neither Out Too Far Nor In Too Deep" aliorumque poematum lectores iudicesque duxerunt ad percipiendum plus rerum multiplicium in poesi Fristiana.[17][18]

Brad Leithauser in praefatione libri Jarrelliani ait, "'alius' Frost quem Jarrel post comem et domesticum Novae Anglicae rusticum discrevit—Frost 'obscurum', qui desperatus, territus, fortis erat—Frost factus est quem nos omnes agnoscere didicimus, et poemata vix nota quae Jarrell pro basi canonis Frostianae elegit nunc in plurimis anthologiis inveni possunt."[19][20][21] Jarrell Frostiana perscribit poemata quae putat superbissima, inter quae "The Witch of Coös," "Home Burial," "A Servant to Servants," "Directive," "Neither Out Too Far Nor In Too Deep," "Provide, Provide," "Acquainted with the Night," "After Apple Picking," "Mending Wall," "The Most of It," "An Old Man's Winter Night," "To Earthward," "Stopping by the Woods on a Snowy Evening," "Spring Pools," "The Lovely Shall Be Choosers," "Design," et "Desert Places."[22]

Criticus Carolus McGrath anno 2003 observavit iudicia litteraria poesis Frostianae in annos mutata est (ut sua imago publica mutata est). In commentario "The Vicissitudes of Literary Reputation," McGrath scripsit: "Robert Frost . . . tempore mortis anno 1963 plerumque habebatur plebeius Novae Angliae. . . . Anno 1977, tertium biographiae Laurentii Thompson volumen proposuit Frost fuisse opus multo turpius quam aliquis animo finxerat; paucos annos post, ob aestimationes novas iudicum sicut Gulielmus H. Pritchard et Haroldus Bloom, et poetarum iuvenum sicut Iosephus Brodsky, resiluit, hoc tempore modernista frigidus et implacabilis."[23][24]

Editores Ricardus Ellmann et Robertus O'Clair in The Norton Anthology of Modern Poetry comparaverunt unicum poetae modum cum operibus poetae Eduini Arlington Robinson quia ambo poetae locis in Nova Anglia in eorum poematibus uti solebant; ei autem dicunt poesim Frostianam fuisse "minus [prudens] litterariam," fortasse ob pondus Thomas Hardy, Gulielmi Butler Yeats, et aliorum scriptorum Anglicorum et Hibernicorum. Praeterea dicunt poemata Frostiana "exhibere felicem contentionem totius sermonis quotidiani"[25] et semper familiaria manere conantur cum formis usitatis uterentur, contra inclinationem poesis Americanae ad versum liberum, quem Frost insigniter dixit esse "sicut tenisia sine rete lusa."[26][27]

Societas Fundata Poesis eandem sententiam in explicatione stili Frostiani defendit, eius opera ponens "ad quadrivium poesis Americanae saeculi undevicensimi [de usu formarum a maioribus traditarum] et modernismi [in usu proprietatum linguae et materiae usitatae et quotidianae]."[28] Ei etiam observant Frost credidisse metrum in forma finitum[29] fuisse plus utile quam noxium, quia animum ad materiam suorum poematum attendere potuit pro sollicitudine novarum formarum versuum creatarum.[30]

Themata[recensere | fontem recensere]

Editores libri Contemporary Literary Criticism aiunt: "Optimum opus Frostianum principales exsistentiae quaestiones investigat, solitudinem singuli in universo neglegente hominis algore terribili depingens."[31] Criticus T. K. Whipple hoc frigus in opere Frostiano vehementius dixit, cum diceret: "in multo eius operis, praecipue in North of Boston, suo libro asperrimo, obscuram vitae in Nova Anglia rustica scaenam vehementius dicit, ubi dedecus saepe in insania tota conlabitur." [31]

E contrario, Harrietta Monroe, conditor et editor magazinae Poetry, rustica Novae Angliae persona in operibus Frostianis vehementius dixit cum scriberet: "fortasse nemo poeta alius in nostra historia optimum ingenii Yankee tam plane in libro posuit."[32][31] Observavit praeterea frequentem locorum rusticorum vitaeque agrariae usum, et ei placebat quod Frost in his poematibus "effectu humano ad rationes naturae exhibito maxime delectatur."[33] Ea etiam dicit, cum poemata narrativa Frostiana in personis condita saepe satirica sint, Frost ipsum "humorem misericordem" semper habere, qui ad suas res spectat.[31]

Praemia Pulitzerana[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • 1924, New Hampshire: A Poem With Notes and Grace Notes
  • 1931, Collected Poems
  • 1937, A Further Range
  • 1943, A Witness Tree

Opera selecta[recensere | fontem recensere]

Congeries poematum[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • A Boy's Will (David Nutt 1913; Holt, 1915)[34]
  • North of Boston (David Nutt, 1914; Holt, 1914)
    • "Mending Wall"
  • Mountain Interval (Holt, 1916)
    • "The Road Not Taken"
  • Selected Poems (Holt, 1923)
  • New Hampshire (Holt, 1923; Grant Richards, 1924)
  • Several Short Poems (Holt, 1924)[1]
  • Selected Poems (Holt, 1928)
  • West-Running Brook (Holt, 1928? 1929)
  • The Lovely Shall Be Choosers, The Poetry Quartos, a Paulo Johnston adumbrata et impressa (Random House, 1929)
  • Collected Poems of Robert Frost (Holt, 1930; Longmans, Green, 1930)
  • The Lone Striker (Knopf, 1933)
  • Selected Poems: Third Edition (Holt, 1934)
  • Three Poems (Baker Library, Collegium Dartmuthense, 1935)
  • The Gold Hesperidee (Bibliophile Press, 1935)
  • From Snow to Snow (Holt, 1936)
  • A Further Range (Holt, 1936; Cape, 1937)
  • Collected Poems of Robert Frost (Holt, 1939; Longmans, Green, 1939)
  • A Witness Tree (Holt, 1942; Cape, 1943)
  • Come In, and Other Poems (1943)
  • Steeple Bush (Holt, 1947)
  • Complete Poems of Robert Frost, 1949 (Holt, 1949; Cape, 1951)
  • Hard Not To Be King (House of Books, 1951)
  • Aforesaid (Holt, 1954)
  • A Remembrance Collection of New Poems (Holt, 1959)
  • You Come Too (Holt, 1959; Bodley Head, 1964)
  • In the Clearing (Holt Rinehart & Winston, 1962)
  • The Poetry of Robert Frost (Novi Eboraci, 1969)
  • A Further Range (Further Range impressa 1926, New Poems ab Holt, 1936; Cape, 1937)
  • What Fifty Said
  • Fire And Ice
  • A Drumlin Woodchuck

Ludi scaenici[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • A Way Out: A One Act Play (Harbor Press, 1929)
  • The Cow's in the Corn: A One Act Irish Play in Rhyme (Slide Mountain Press, 1929).
  • A Masque of Reason (Holt, 1945)
  • A Masque of Mercy (Holt, 1947)

Libri orationis solutae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • The Letters of Robert Frost to Louis Untermeyer (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1963; Cape, 1964).
  • Robert Frost and John Bartlett: The Record of a Friendship, by Margaret Bartlett Anderson (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1963).
  • Selected Letters of Robert Frost (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1964).
  • Interviews with Robert Frost (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1966; Cape, 1967).
  • Family Letters of Robert and Elinor Frost (State University of New York Press, 1972).
  • Robert Frost and Sidney Cox: Forty Years of Friendship (University Press of New England, 1981).
  • The Notebooks of Robert Frost, edited by Robert Faggen (Harvard University Press, Ianuario 2007). [2]

Omnibus volumes[recensere | fontem recensere]

Verba dicta[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Robert Frost Reads His Poetry. 1957. Caedmon Records TC1060.

Vide etiam[recensere | fontem recensere]

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Robert Frost (Online edition ed.). 2008 .
  2. 2.0 2.1 Jean C. Stine, Bridget Broderick, et Daniel G. Marowski, eds., Contemporary Literary Criticism, vol. 26 (Detroiti: Gale Research, 1983), 110.
  3. Anglice: "public literary figures, almost an artistic institution,"
  4. Eugene Ehrlich, et Gorton Carruth, The Oxford Illustrated Literary Guide to the United States, vol. 50 (Nobi Eboraci: Oxford University Press, 1982, ISBN 0195031865).}
  5. Nancy Lewis Tuten et John Zubizarreta, The Robert Frost Encyclopedia (Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 978031329464-8), 145: "Halfway through the spring semester of his second year, Dean Briggs released him from Harvard without prejudice, lamenting the loss of so good a student."
  6. Jay Parini (2000). Robert Frost: A Life. Macmillan. pp. 64–65. ISBN 978-0-8050-6341-7  .
  7. Jeffrey Meyers, [http://books.google.com/books?id=aMxkAAAAMAAJ Robert Frost: A Biography (Novi Eboraci: Houghton Mifflin, 1996): "Frost remained at Harvard until March of his sophomore year, when he decamped in the middle of a term."
  8. Anglice: "the sound of sense."
  9. "Voices and Visions," in Robert Frost (Novi Eboraci: PBS, 1988).
  10. Pulitzer Prize Website
  11. Helen Muir, Frost in Florida (Valiant Press, 1995, ISBN 0963346164), 41.
  12. Office of the Clerk - U.S. House of Representatives, Congressional Gold Medal Recipients
  13. 13.0 13.1 Robert Frost, Collected Poems, Prose, & Plays, ed. Richard Poirier et Mark Richardson, (Novi Eboraci: Library of America, 1995, ISBN 188301106X), The Library of America, no. 81.
  14. Anglice: "Robert Frost, along with Stevens and Eliot, seems to me the greatest of the American poets of this century. Frost's virtues are extraordinary. No other living poet has written so well about the actions of ordinary men; his wonderful dramatic monologues or dramatic scenes come out of a knowledge of people that few poets have had, and they are written in a verse that uses, sometimes with absolute mastery, the rhythms of actual speech."
  15. Randall Jarrell, "Fifty Years of American Poetry" in No Other Book: Selected Essays (Novi Eboraci: HarperCollins, 1999).
  16. Anglice: "the regular ways of looking at Frost's poetry are grotesque simplifications, distortions, falsifications—coming to know his poetry well ought to be enough, in itself, to dispel any of them, and to make plain the necessity of finding some other way of talking about his work."
  17. Randall Jarrell, "To The Laodiceans" in No Other Book: Selected Essays (Novi Eboraci: HarperCollins, 1999).
  18. Randall Jarrell, "Robert Frost's 'Home Burial'" in No Other Book: Selected Essays (Novi Eboraci: HarperCollins, 1999).
  19. Anglice: "The 'other' Frost that Jarrell discerned behind the genial, homespun New England rustic—the 'dark' Frost who was desperate, frightened, and brave—has become the Frost we've all learned to recognize, and the little-known poems Jarrell singled out as central to the Frost canon are now to be found in most anthologies."
  20. Brad Leithauser, "Introduction," in No Other Book: Selected Essays (Novi Eboraci: HarperCollins, 1999).
  21. Cary Nelson, Anthology of Modern American Poetry (Novi Eboraci: Oxford University Press, 2000, ISBN 0195122704), 84.
  22. Randall Jarrell, "Fifty Years of American Poetry" (HarperCollins, 1999).
  23. Anglice: "Robert Frost . . . at the time of his death in 1963 was generally considered to be a New England folkie. . . . In 1977, the third volume of Lawrance Thompson's biography suggested that Frost was a much nastier piece of work than anyone had imagined; a few years later, thanks to the reappraisal of critics like Gulielmus H. Pritchard and Harold Bloom and of younger poets like Joseph Brodsky, he bounced back again, this time as a bleak and unforgiving modernist."
  24. Charles McGrath, "The Vicissitudes of Literary Reputation," The New York Times Magazine, 15 Iunii 2003.
  25. Anglice: "show a successful striving for utter colloquialism."
  26. Anglice: "like playing tennis without a net."
  27. Richard Ellman et Robert O'Clair, The Norton Anthology of Modern Poetry, ed. 2a (Novi Eboraci: Norton, 1988).
  28. Anglice: "at the crossroads of nineteenth-century American poetry [with regard to his use of traditional forms] and modernism [with his use of idiomatic language and ordinary, every day subject matter]."
  29. Anglice:"the self-imposed restrictions of meter in form."
  30. "Robert Frost, www.poetryfoundationlorg (Societatis Fundatae Poesis.
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 31.3 Contemporary Literary Criticism, ed. Jean C. Stine, Bridget Broderick, et Daniel G. Marowski (Detroiti: Gale Research, 1983, vol. 26), 110–129.
  32. Anglice: "perhaps no other poet in our history has put the best of the Yankee spirit into a book so completely."
  33. Anglice: "showing the human reaction to nature's processes."
  34. Frost, Robert. 1915. A Boy's Will

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

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