Proverbium

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Proverbium Mandarinicum: "Disce ad senectutem, vive ad senectutem, sed tertia pars non iam cognita."

Proverbium sive adagium est dictum simplex et solidum, populo notum crebroque iteratum, quod veritatem in communi sensu vel in activa experientia humana conditam saepe per metaphoram declarat. Proverbium fundamenta morum describens etiam praeceptum, praecipue in philosophia, appellari potest.

Proverbia linguae et culturae similia saepe mutuantur, et aliquando per plus quam unam linguam ad tempus hodiernum supersunt. Biblia Sacra (insigniter inter quae Liber Proverbiorum) et Latina aevi medii (praecipue ab opere Erasmi et aliorum adiuvata) personam magni momenti in distributione proverbiorum trans Europam egerunt, quamquam paene omni culturae sunt sua exempla.

Paroemiologia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Investigatio proverbiorum appellatur paroemiologia (a Graeco παροιμία 'proverbium') et retro usque ad tempus Aristotelis videri potest. Paroemiographia autem in proverbiis conlectis consistit. Unus ex praestantibus proverbiorum eruditis in Civitatibus Foederatis est Wolfgangus Mieder. Plus quam quinquaginta libros et permultos commentarios de proverbiis scripsit, periodicum Proverbium edit, et ab aliis proverbiorum eruditis latissime citatur. Qui nomen substantivum proverbium sic definit:

Proverbium est brevis populorum sententia, late cognita, quae sapientiam, veritatem, mores, opiniones antiquas specie metaphorica, stabili, memorabili continet, et a maioribus posteris traditur.[1]

Inter subgenera proverbiorum sunt comparationes proverbiales (“tam negotiosus quam apis[2]) et interrogativa proverbialia (“Sunt pullo labella?"[3]).

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Anglice: "A proverb is a short, generally known sentence of the folk which contains wisdom, truth, morals, and traditional views in a metaphorical, fixed and memorizable form and which is handed down from generation to generation" (Mieder 1985:119; etiam in Mieder 1993:24.
  2. Anglice: "as busy as a bee."
  3. Anglice: "Does a chicken have lips?"

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

"Pisces magni parvos edunt pisces." Adumbratio Petri Bruegel sene facta.
  • Bailey, Clinton. 2004. A Culture of Desert Survival: Bedouin Proverbs from Sinai and the Negev. Portu Novo: Yale University Press.
  • Borajo, Daniel, Juan Rios, M. Alicia Perez, et Juan Pazos. 1990. Dominoes as a domain where to use proverbs as heuristics. Data & Knowledge Engineering 5:129–137.
  • Dominguez Barajas, Elias. 2010. The function of proverbs in discourse. Berolini: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Grzybek, Peter. 1994. "Proverb." Simple Forms: An Encyclopaedia of Simple Text-Types in Lore and Literature, ed. Walter Koch. Bochum: Brockmeyer. 227–241.
  • Haas, Heather. 2008. Proverb familiarity in the United States: Cross-regional comparisons of the paremiological minimum. Journal of American Folklore 121(481):319–347.
  • Hirsch, E. D., Joseph Kett, Jame Trefil. 1988. The dictionary of cultural literacy. Bostoniae: Houghton Mifflin.
  • Mac Coinnigh, Marcas. 2012. Syntactic Structures in Irish-Language Proverbs. Proverbium: Yearbook of International Proverb Scholarship 29:95–136.
  • Mieder, Wolfgang. 1982. Proverbs in Nazi Germany: The Promulgation of Anti-Semitism and Stereotypes Through Folklore. The Journal of American Folklore 95(378):435–464.
  • Mieder, Wolfgang. [1982, 1990,] 1993. International Proverb Scholarship: An Annotated Bibliography, with supplements. Novi Eboraci: Garland Publishing.
  • Mieder, Wolfgang. 1994. Wise Words. Essays on the Proverb. Novi Eboraci: Garland.
  • Mieder, Wolfgang. 2001. International Proverb Scholarship: An Annotated Bibliography. Supplementum 3 (1990–2000). Bernae, Novi Eborari: Peter Lang.
  • Mieder, Wolfgang. 2004a. The Netherlandish Proverbs. (Supplement series of Proverbium, 16.) Burlingtoniae: University of Vermont.
  • Mieder, Wolfgang. 2004b. Proverbs: A Handbook. Greenwood Folklore Handbooks. Greenwood Press.
  • Mieder, Wolfgang, et Alan Dundes. 1994. The wisdom of many: essays on the proverb. (Primum anno 1981 a Garland editus.) Madisoniae: University of Wisconsin Press.
  • Mieder, Wolfgang et Anna Tothne Litovkina. 2002. Twisted Wisdom: Modern Anti-Proverbs.
  • Mieder, Wolfgang et Janet Sobieski. 1999. Proverb iconography: an international bibliography. Bernae: Peter Lang.
  • Mitchell, David. 2001. Go Proverbs (reprint of 1980). ISBN 0-9706193-1-6. Slate and Shell.
  • Nussbaum, Stan. 1998. The Wisdom of African Proverbs (CD-ROM). Colorado Springs: Global Mapping International.
  • Obeng, S. G. 1996. The Proverb as a Mitigating and Politeness Strategy in Akan Discourse. Anthropological Linguistics 38(3):521–549.
  • Paczolay, Gyula. 1997. European Proverbs in 55 Languages. Hungaria: Veszpre’m.
  • Permiakov, Grigorii. 1979. From proverb to Folk-tale: Notes on the general theory of cliche. Moscuae: Nauka.
  • Pritchard, James. 1958. The Ancient Near East, vol. 2. Princetoniae, Novae Caesareae: Princeton University Press.
  • Raymond, Joseph. 1956. Tension in proverbs: more light on international understanding. Western Folklore 15.3:153–158.
  • Taylor, Archer. 1985. The Proverb and an Index to the Proverb. Introductio et bibliographia a Wolfgango Mieder factae. Bernae: Peter Lang.
  • Zellem, Edward. 2012. Afghan Proverbs Illustrated. Charlestoniae: CreateSpace.
  • Zellem, Edward. 2012. Zarbul Masalha: 151 Afghan Dari Proverbs. Charlestoniae: CreateSpace.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Wiktionary-ico-de.png Vide proverbia Anglica in Victionario.
Wikiquote-logo.svg Vicicitatio habet citationes quae ad proverbia spectant.
Wikiquote-logo.svg Vicicitatio habet citationes quae ad proverbia spectant.
Commons-logo.svg Vicimedia Communia plura habent quae ad proverbia spectant.