Patina chalybis

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Patina chalybis et firmamentum metallicum.

Patina chalybis,[1][2] simpliciter patina, etiam cupa chalybis vel cupa metallica[3] (aliquando, una cum aliis patinis, grex chalybis vel orchestra chalybis appellata), est instrumentum musicum ex Trinitate et Tabaco ortum. Musici qui patinas chalybis pulsant patinistae appellantur.

Descriptio[recensere | fontem recensere]

Patina hodierna est instrumentum percussionale chromatice sonans,[4] ex cupis 55 congiorum quae oleum et res similes olim continuerunt fabricatum. Vox cupa ad cupas ex quibus haec instrumenta efficiuntur spectat; instrumentum autem melius appellatur patina chalybis vel simpliciter patina quia in familia instrumentorum idiophonorum describitur, et ergo non est tympanum, quod membranophonum est.

Patina pulsatur per par bacillorum rectorum latice praefixorum; magnitudo et genus bacilli extremi secundum genus patinarum variantur. Aliqui musici quattuor bacillis utuntur, duobus in utraque manu gestis.[5]

Origines[recensere | fontem recensere]

Coloni Francici et eorum servi—inter quos Africani Occidentales et creoli Francici ex Sancto Vincentio, Granata, Sancta Lucia, Dominica—ad Trinitatem per Res Novas Francicas (1789) ex Martinica migraverunt, communia locorum condentes antequam Britanni Trinitatem et Tabacum ex Hispania capierint. Francici licentias festas secum tulerunt, atque servi, quibus licentiorum ritorum esse participes non licuit, suam celebrationem similem, canboulay appellatam, creaverunt. . . .

Evolutio[recensere | fontem recensere]

Traditur Antonius Williams conlocationem sonorum secundum circulum quintorum ordinatorum excogitavisse, rem tunc anno 1963 descriptionem araneam (Anglice spiderweb design) appellatam (Love 1966:8); quae commune conlocationis sonorum in patinis ducentibus exemplar factum est. Inter aliis inventis magni momenti est intonatio harmonicorum tonorum superiorium in notis singulis, semel et libere a Bertie Marshall et Alano Gervais excogitata.

Familia patinarum[recensere | fontem recensere]

Homo patinam intonat per "intonatorem strobe"

Familia instrumentorum chalybis in multis instrumentorum generibus consistit. Initio motus patinarum chalybis, unusquisque musicus singulam patinam pulsabat—modus nunc usitate instrumentatio "circa collum" appellatus. Deinde, nonnullae patinae chromaticae per plures patinas singulas factae sunt, praecipue in registris bassis, quibus sunt pauciores soni per patinam ob magnitudines regionum sonorum inferiorum. Hic sunt nonnulla ex populo gratissimis instrumentis:

Instrumentum Sonus Inventor
Supranus, dux, tenor, pingpong[6] Supranus Winston "Spree" Simon
Tenor duplex Medius supranus Bertie Marshall
Secundus duplex Altus Sonny Roach[7]
Cithara duplex Baritonus Ionathan Francis
Quadrophonicum (patinae quater) Baritonus Rudolphus Charles[8]
Cithara triplex Baritonus Ionathan Francis
Cellum Baritonus Iosue Francis
Patina sexies Baritonus Iosue Francis
Bassus tenorius Bassus Nadia Ramlochan et Faheezy Band
Bassus sexies Bassus Iosue Francis
Bassus nonies Bassus Rudolphus Charles[8]
Bassus duodecies Bassus Rudolphus Charles[8]

Multos annos homines patinas chalybis in novis condicionibus adhibere conantur. Primus in perfunctione theatrica usus notus (praeter Trinitatem et Tabacum) fuit in The House of Flowers (1954), re musica Broadway Haroldi Arlen, in qua quidam grex, Trinidad Steel Band appellatus, Enid Mosier duce, nonnulla carmina perfunctus est.[9] Anno 1960, Daphne Oram, compositor Britannica, fuit primus compositor qui sonos patinae chalybis electronice tractavit.[10] Primus usus patinae in phonodisco commerciali a The Hollies anno 1967 in disco Carrie Anne effectus est (Thomas 1992:56).

Patinae chalybis in genus iaz fusio a Dave Samuels et Othello Molineaux decennio 199, Ionathan Scales decennio 201, at alii musicis introductae sunt. Sonus patinarum chalybis, quia effectum gratum facilemque ad modum musicum iam multiplicem addit, vehementius dicitur in Morning Dance, albo novae fusionis a Spyro Gyra edito.

Bibliograhia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Aho, William R. 1987. Steel Band Music in Trinidad and Tobago: The Creation of a People's Music. Latin American Music Review 8(1):26–56.
  • Blake, Felix I. R. The Trinidad and Tobago Steel Pan: History and Evolution. ISBN 0-9525528-0-9.
  • Dudley, Shannon K. 1996. Judging "By the beat": Calypso versus soca. Ethnomusicology 40(2):269–298.
  • Dudley, Shannon K. 1997. Making Music for the Nation: Competing Identities and Esthetics in Trinidad and Tobago's Panorama Steelband Competition. Ph.D. dissertatio, Universitas Californiae apud Berkleiam.
  • Dudley, Shannon K. 2002. Dropping the Bomb: Steelband Performance and Meaning in 1960's Trinidad. Ethnomusicology 46(1):135–164.
  • Grant, Cy. 1999. Ring of Steel: Pan Sound and Symbol. Londinii: Macmillan Education. ISBN 0-333-66128-1.
  • Helmlinger, Aurélie. 2001. Geste individuel, mémoire collective : Le jeu du pan dans les steelbands de Trinidad et Tobago, Cahiers de musiques traditionnelles 14:181-202.
  • Helmlinger, Aurélie. 2005. Mémoire et jeu d’ensemble : La mémorisation du répertoire dans les steelbands de Trinidad et Tobago. Ph.D. dissertatio, Universitas Parisiensis X Nanterre.
  • Helmlinger, Aurélie. 2006. "The influence of the group for the memorization of repertoire in Trinidad and Tobago steelbands". 9th International Conference on Musical Perception and Cognition proceedings, ed. M. Baroni, A. R. Addessi, R. Caterina, et M. Costa. Bononiae.
  • Helmlinger, Aurélie. 2008. Les steelbands de Trinidad et Tobago : Ethnomusicologie cognitive d’une mémoire d’orchestre. Intellectica 48(1):81–101.
  • Helmlinger, Aurélie. 2010. Mémoriser à plusieurs : expérience sur l’effet du groupe dans les steelbands (Trinidad et Tobago). Memorizing together. Group effect experiments in steelbands (Trinidad and Tobago). Annales Fyssen 24:216–235.
  • Helmlinger, Aurélie. 2011. La virtuosité comme arme de guerre psychologique. Ateliers d'anthropologie 35.
  • Kronman, Ulf. 1992. Steel Pan Tuning - A Handbook for Steel Pan Making and Tuning. Musikmuseets skrifter. ISSN 0282-8952.
  • Love, Jacob Wainwright. 1967. "Our Boys: A Study of a Steelband in Tobago, W. I." Senior honors thesis, Universitas Harvardiana.
  • Manuel, Peter. 2006. Caribbean Currents: Caribbean Music from Rumba to Reggae. Ed. 2a. Philadelphiae: Temple University Press. ISBN 1-59213-463-7.
  • Seeger, Peter. 1964. Steel Drums: How to Play Them and Make Them. Novi Eboraci: Oak Publishing.
  • Stuempfle, Stephen. 1995. The Steelband Movement: The Forging of a National Art in Trinidad and Tobago. Philadelphiae: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Thomas, Jeffrey. 1992. Forty Years of Steel: An Annotated Discography of Steelband and Pan Recordings, 1951–1991. Connecticut: Greenwood Press.

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Ex verbis Anglicis steel pan.
  2. Warning icon.svg Fons nominis Latini desideratus (addito fonte, hanc formulam remove)
  3. Ex Hispanico tambor metálico, false ex Anglico drum 'tympanum' deducto, cum recta significatio verbi drum (barrel) 'cupa' sit.
  4. Patinae chalybis pro ludibrio fabricatae diatonice saepe intonantur, et nonnulla modi veteris instrumenta "circa collum" gesta pauciores notas habent.
  5. Shannon Dudley, Music from Behind the Bridge: Steelband Spirit and Politics in Trinidad and Tobago (Novi Eboraci: Oxford University Press, 2007), ISBN 0-19-532123-5.
  6. "BBC: A History of the World - Objects" 
  7. Johnson, Kim. "Sonny Roach from St James". http://www.trinbagopan.com/ 
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Inventions
  9. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B0000996FK.
  10. "Wee Also Have Sound Houses", BBC Radio 3 Sunday Feature, 3 Iulii 2008.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

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